• Alternative techniques for measuring the topological charge in optical vortices

      López Mago, Dorilián; Peréz García, Benjamín de Jesús; Gutiérrez Vega, Julio César; Rodríguez y Masegosa, Rodolfo (2017-05-16)
      A set of alternative methods to measure the topological charge of optical vortices is presented. The first method uses a displaced superposition of two beams with orthogonal polarization states in a Cartesian basis (horizontal and vertical), while the second method uses a superposition of auxiliary displaced vector modes with orthogonal polarizations. The information of the topological charge is embedded in the rich space variant polarization profile generated by the superposition, which can be analized through the Stokes parameters. Also, the cross-correlation function is studied and allowed us to measure the azimuthal index by performing power measurements. These methods were validated in Mach–Zehnder and Sagnac interferometers
    • Andamios porosos de zeína: prueba de concepto de su uso en el cultivo de células de mamífero.

      Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel.; Álvarez, Mario Moises; Portales Cabrera, Cynthia Guadalupe; Montes Fonseca, Silvia Lorena; Mendoza Buenrostro, Christian Carlos (2017-12-14)
      Las espumas son materiales porosos y de baja densidad, características convenientes en andamiajes para células de mamífero. En este proyecto se estudió la aptitud de espumas elaboradas a partir de zeína (la proteína más abundante del maíz) como andamios para adherir y mantener distintos cultivos celulares de mamíferos: fibroblastos de ratón (NIH 3T3 ATCC® CRL-1658™), fibroblastos humanos FH (fuente primaria) y células de adenocarcinoma mamario MCF-7 (ATCC® HTB-22™). Los andamios porosos se obtuvieron a partir de zeína termoplastificada, la cual fue sometida a un proceso de expansión por dióxido de carbono supercrítico. Estos andamios fueron estudiados bajo condiciones de cultivo continuo en cámaras microfluídicas o lote en placas de ultrabaja adherencia. Los dispositivos microfluídicos, con un volumen efectivo de 100 µl, se fabricaron a partir de polidimetilsiloxano (PDMS) y se conectaron a una bomba de jeringa utilizando tubería flexible. Cortes rectangulares de espuma de zeína fueron colocados al interior de la cámara microfluídica, se inocularon con células de mamífero y se sometieron a condiciones de flujo continuo de medio modificado de Dulbecco (DMEM) a 3 µL/min. Resultados de microscopía confocal demuestran que todas las líneas celulares exploradas presentaron adhesión celular a los andamios de zeína. Resultados de consumo de glucosa confirman que las células mantuvieron su viabilidad en todos los experimentos, 60- 84 horas en cultivo continuo y hasta 9 días en cultivo por lote. Estos resultados sugieren que los andamios elaborados a base de zeína se pueden utilizar como un andamio adecuado para el cultivo de tejidos e ingeniería celular. Foams are low-density porous materials, a property that makes them attractive for their use as scaffolds for mammalian cells. In this project, micro foams made from thermo-plasticized zein (the main protein of maize) were used as scaffolds to attach and culture mouse fibroblasts (cell line NIH 3T3 ATCC® CRL-1658™), human fibroblasts (primary cell line FH), and adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7 (ATCC® HTB-22™) in continuous flow chambers or ultra-low attachment multiwall plates (batch system). Zein foams were produced by supercritical-CO2 expansion. We produced polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) devices with 100 µl of effective-volume micro-channels that were connected with tubing to a syringe pump to implement continuous culture experiments. Rectangular slices of zein foam were placed into the flow chamber, they were seeded with the corresponding cell line, and the devices were continuously perfused with Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) at a flow rate of 3 µl. The systems were incubated at 37°C and 5% CO2. Different behaviors were observed for each cell line, but cell adhesion was found in all experiments and it was documented using confocal microscopy. Trends of the glucose consumption curves show that the cultures maintained their viability throughout of experiment, 60-84 h in continuous cultures and up to 9 days in batch cultures. These proof-of-concept experiments suggest that zein can be used as a surface scaffold for continuous cell culture and tissue engineering.  
    • Biogenic silica as a novel carrier to encapsulate isorhamnetin using a microfluidic device

      Parra-Saldivar, Roberto; Iqbal, Hafiz M. N.; Mancera-Andrade, Elena Ivonne; González-Valdez, José Guillermo (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-14)
      Diatoms have the peculiarity to synthesize amorphous silica around the cell wall. Frustules (empty silica shells) have the advantages of being biocompatible, biodegradable, nontoxic and rich with OH groups on the surface. Frustules have been used in diverse fields, but recently their application in the biomedical field has been investigated. Drug delivery systems (DDS) have been studied to improve the therapeutic effect of different drugs, especially hydrophobic drugs. Different encapsulation methodologies have been used to load the drug in a carrier such as drop-wise methodology or solvent evaporation. However, a reproducible methodology that reduces handling error must be explored. In the present work, a microfluidic device is used as a novel encapsulation technique for solid particles and hydrophobic drugs. A novel microfluidic device fabrication technique was used: ESCARGOT (Embedded SCAffold RemovinG Open Technology). Isorhamnetin was used as a model drug which has a hydrophobic nature. Three different concentrations were studied: 20, 60 and 100 μg/mL, and three different resident times in the device (0.4, 1 and 2 minutes). The highest encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and loading capacity (LC%) were 17.92% and 1.63% respectively. According to the statistical analysis, the optimum conditions to obtain a maximum (EE%) were 2 minutes and 20 μg/mL. The isorhamnetin release behavior was observed with a burst release in the first hour with 48.26%, while the total amount of drug was delivered in three hours. The feasibility of frustules as carriers and the microfluidic device as a mixer was successfully accessed. This methodology could be used as a standardization technique to obtain reproducible results. Further studies with frustule surface functionalization need to be performed to improve EE%.  
    • Changes in the activity of CYP450 3A4 induced by kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, major flavonol found in black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed coat extract.

      Gutiérrez Uribe, Janet Alejandra; Antunes Ricardo, Marilena; Serna Guerrero, Delia Ayled; Hernández Hernández, José Ascención; Antunes Ricardo, Marilena (2017-12-01)
      Supplements have increase the popularity of herbal medicine as complementary and/or alternative therapies in the treatment of many disorders, because of this there is a potential possibility for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics interaction between xenobiotics. The health promoting effects of natural foods and dietary supplements containing herbal constituents is believed to be caused by the antioxidant activity of flavonoids. Black bean flavonoids have been shown to have biological effects as antimicrobials, anti-inflammatory, anticholesterolemic, and have anticancerous properties. These interactions can attenuate or enhance drug effects and toxicity by interfering with permeability, phase I metabolism and the antioxidant activity of flavonoids. Keywords: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug interactions, CyP450, hepatocytes, HepG2, Caco2, permeability, cellular antioxidant activity, flavonoids, black bean, quercetin, kaempferol, CPC
    • Characterization of sausages added with a functional carrot powder ingredient rich in pro-vitamin a carotenoids and fortified with chlorogenic acid

      Alvarado-Ramírez, Melissa (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2017-05-27)
      Metabolic syndrome has become a worldwide health issue that results in the increased risk of chronic degenerative diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. These metabolic conditions could be prevented if the intake of nutraceuticals is increased. The main source of these compounds in the diet are fruits and vegetables, however the consumption of such foods in the Mexican population is low, and thus it is relevant to design strategies that allow the incorporation of nutraceutical compounds in high-consumed foods in the population. The transformation of fruits and vegetables into powders, for later incorporation in food formulations as ingredients could be a strategy to increase the consumption of nutraceuticals. However, the heat treatments to which vegetables are subjected during drying to obtain powders induce a significant loss of these compounds. Also, there are additional losses during processing when the powder is added to a food formulation. In the past years, postharvest abiotic stresses such as wounding, modified atmospheres, and UV-radiation, have been studied as an effective tool to improve the accumulation of bioactive compounds in horticultural crops. In this context, it has been reported that wounding stress induces the accumulation of phenolic compounds, specially, chlorogenic acid (CHA) in carrots. Thus, the transformation of stressed carrots into a powder (carrot powder, CP) and its further incorporation into highly consumed foods, would be an effective strategy to overcome thermal losses of nutraceuticals observed during processing and to increase the consumption of antioxidants in the Mexican population. In the present study, a carrot powder with high concentration of phenolic compounds (functional carrot powder, FCP) was produced and added as an ingredient to sausage formulations. To obtain FCP, carrots were shredded, stored for 48 h at 15 °C, dried at 60 °C and grounded by milling. The nutraceutical content of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, water absorption index (WAI), and oil absorption index (OAI) were evaluated and compared to regular carrot powder (control carrot powder, CCP), which was obtained by drying carrots immediately after shredding (without storing the samples). Both CPs showed similar levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, and retinol equivalents (RE); whereas FCP showed 612.4% and 798.4% higher levels of total phenolics and CHA, respectively, as compared with CCP. Likewise, FCP showed higher values of WAI and OAI. Preliminary studies were performed to determine the optimum FCP concentration in sausages. Based on the results, formulation with 4% w/w FCP was chosen as the optimum concentration for a complete characterization of the product. A proximate analysis and dietary fiber content was determined in sausages added with 4% FCP and 4% CCP. Moreover, pH and purge values were evaluated as well as color, texture properties, and nutraceutical content (carotenoids and phenolic compounds) for 42 d of storage at 4 °C. Finally, a sensory acceptability test was performed. It was observed an increment of 72% in total dietary fiber by the addition of 4% CP, and a significant decrease of moisture in CCP formulation. Likewise, FCP addition decreased the pH of sausage, while CCP showed higher purge loss than the control and FCP formulation during storage. Color as well as texture parameters were also affected by CP addition. In general, phytochemical content showed stability during storage of sausages added with CP. Compared to CCP sausages, FCP formulation showed 377.7% higher concentration of total phenolic compounds. No significate differences in carotenoids were observed between CP formulations, while a portion of 62.5 g of 4% CP sausage contributes to 32.5% of daily retinol equivalent intake in Mexican population. Finally, a consumer’s acceptability test showed adequate acceptability of CCP and FCP formulations by consumers. Results demonstrated that FCP addition in a sausage formulation resulted on a product accepted by consumers, while providing nutraceutical compounds such as fiber, phenolic compounds and carotenoids, which could greatly aid on the prevention of chronic and degenerative diseases.
    • Characterizing the role of mitochondrial Ca2+ overload and permeability transition during the BCR-dependent activation of murine B lymphocytes

      González Castillo, Elena Cristina; García Rivas, Gerardo; Torres Quintanilla, Alejandro Daniel; Maravillas Montero, José Luis; Torre Amione, Guillermo (2017-12-05)
      Mitochondria have proved their role as major players for immunometabolism, regulating cell function by metabolic signals. Indeed, mitochondrial function during lymphocyte activation goes beyond ATP supply, as recent evidence shows that mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and mitochondrial ROS (mROS) production regulate lymphocyte activation. Furthermore, the adaptive immune response depends on the differentiation of lymphocytes into various subsets. Whether metabolic signals determine lymphocyte differentiation has just began to be explored. Interestingly, recent evidence shows that mitochondrial signals determine B lymphocyte differentiation into memory cells. During lymphocyte activation, Ca2+ uptake into mitochondria has proven to be an important mechanism of regulation. However, if mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake capacity impacts B cell differentiation and activation is not yet determined. Here, we have generated an in vitro model of B lymphocyte mitochondrial Ca2+ overload to explore whether this mechanism is involved in B cell activation. Primary mice B lymphocytes were subjected to activation or thapsigargin treatment to induce Ca2+ overload. The effect on the expression of activation surface marker CD69 was explored using flow cytometry. Mitochondrial contribution was explored by Ca2+ uptake inhibition using Ru360 or treatment with the mitochondrial antioxidant MitoTEMPO. Mitochondrial membrane potential, Ca2+ uptake, and content were determined. Results show that our in vitro model effectively induces mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, as seen by higher Ca2+ content and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Moreover, mitochondrial Ca2+ overload contributes to the expression of CD69 via mROS production. Lastly, results suggest that during BCR-dependent activation, mitochondria take up Ca2+ to increase mROS production that can alter the signaling cascade. The in vitro model generated herein, should allow for further exploration of whether mitochondrial Ca2+ overload impacts B cell differentiation.
    • A circular lean product-service systems design framework: motivations, drivers and constraints

      Romero Díaz, David; González Chávez, Clarissa Alejandra; Rodríguez, Ciro; Vázquez, Elisa (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-16)
      In the last years, the Service Sector has received increasing attention from both academics and practitioners. The transition from traditional manufacturing to service-integrated systems has given place to the “servitisation revolution”, which today, is a relevant revenue generator not only for companies, but also, for societies. The definition of “Product-Service Systems” calls for value-generation through market expansion, by the addition of competitive advantages to previous companies’ offerings. This solution has been recognized for being one of the most efficient techniques towards the achievement of resource-efficient and sustainable economies. PSS has grown beyond expectations, becoming a common term among publications of the most recognized academic institutions and a highly discussed topic across a broad range of geographically diverse organizations. However, recent literature suggests analysing the compatibility of PSS with other tools, methodologies and principles, which may help enhance the intrinsic environmentally sustainable advantage that belongs in its first definitions; but that has, unfortunately, faded through time. This research attempts to do so; to analyse how Product-Service Systems can benefit from Circular Economy and Lean principles. In this first attempt, non-systemized, although valuable, literature was found. Through this research work, a Systematic Literature Review is developed to identify, through an objective quantitative and qualitative analysis, those tools, principles and methodologies which can modify each stage of a PSS. Furthermore, a first Circular Lean Product-Service System Design Framework is proposed and extensively described. This framework is validated empirically through a Case Study supported by two vessel-building companies. Further research is required to validate the proposed framework among different industries with a higher involvement in the CLPSS design.
    • Combined effect of ultrasound treatment and phytohormones on the accumulation of bioactive compunds in broccoli florets

      Jacobo Velázquez, Daniel Alberto; Aguilar Camacho, Miguel; Wrlti Chanes, Jorge Santos; Benavidez Lozano, Jorge Alejandro (2017-05-27)
      In the past years, postharvest abiotic stresses such as wounding, modified atmospheres, UV-radiation, and the exogenous application of ethylene (ET) and methyl jasmonate (MJ) have been studied as an effective tool to improve the accumulation of bioactive compounds in fresh produce. In this context, previous reports in literature suggest that non-thermal processing technologies such as ultrasound (US) activate the biosynthesis of nutraceuticals in crops by a similar mechanism exerted by wounding stress. However, there is still limited information in literature regarding emerging technologies and their effect on the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds. Therefore, the present thesis evaluated the immediate and late response to US treatment (20 min, frequency 24 kHz, amplitude 100 μm) on glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid in broccoli florets. Moreover, the combined effects of US with exogenous MJ (250 ppm) and/or ethylene ET (1000 ppm) on the content of bioactive compounds were also evaluated during storage (72 h at 15 ºC) of broccoli florets. As an immediate response to US treatment, the extractability of glucosinolates such as glucoraphanin (795%), 4-hydroxy glucobrassicin (153%), and glucobrassicin (78.6%) increased as compared with the control (CT), and induced the detection of gluconasturtiin (0.30 mmol/kg) not identified in the control. Furthermore, US treatment increased the extractability of 1- sinapoyl-2-feruloylgentiobiose (57.23%) as compared with the control, whereas the concentration of the other phenolic compounds remained unaltered. Similarly, the content of total ascorbic acid remained unchanged immediately after US treatment. The enhanced extractability of some bioactive compounds was attributed to cell disruption by US treatment. During storage, gluconasturtiin and 4-methoxy glucobrassicin, which were not detected in CT samples before storage, showed accumulation at 24 h (0.69 mmol/kg) and 72 h (0.29 mmol/kg) of storage, respectively. On the other hand, the content of glucoraphanin and 4- hidroxy glucobrassicin, which were immediately increased by US treatment, remained stable during storage in US samples. However, the high increased content of gluconasturtiin and 4- methoxy glucobrassicin at 24 h and 72 h of storage in CT samples, was not detected in US samples. The combined application of MJ and US in broccoli florets, induced a synergistic effect on the accumulation of 4-hydroxy glucobrassicin, glucoerucin, gluconasturtiin and neoglucobrassicin at 72 h of storage, showing 187.1%, 111.92%, 755.9% and 232.8%, respectively, higher content as compared with US 72 h samples. When ET was applied on US samples, it impeded the accumulation of gluconasturtiin at 24 h of storage, whereas the accumulation of 4-methoxy glucobrassicin (0.52 mmol/kg) was slightly induced at 72 h. Interestingly, when the three stressors where applied together (US+MJ+ET) the synergistic effect of US and MJ observed on the accumulation of 4-hydroxy glucobrassicin, glucoerucin, gluconasturtiin and neoglucobrassicin at 72 h of storage was repressed. Regarding with phenolic compounds the application of US increased the accumulation of 5-O-CQA (70.6%) and 1,2,2-TSG (56.4%) at 72 h and 24 h of storage, respectively, whereas the content of CA (29.8%) decreased at 48 h, as compared with CT samples. Similar to glucosinolates, after 72 h of storage, US and MJ showed a synergistic effect on the accumulation of 3-O-CQA, 1-S-2-FG, and 1,2,2-TSG, showing 73.4%, 56.0% and 136.7%, respectively, as compared with 72h CT+MJ samples. Interestingly, the application of ET did not modify the effect exerted by US on the accumulation of individual phenolic compounds. Likewise, the application of the three stressors in broccoli florets (US+MJ+ET samples) inhibited the accumulation of 3-O-CQA, 1-S-2-FG, and 1,2,2-TSG observed in US+MJ samples stored for 72 h. In general, the ascorbic acid content decreased in most samples during storage. Samples treated with US alone did not show significant differences in the ascorbic acid content during storage when compared with CT samples. However, when MJ+ET were applied, the content of total ascorbic acid was significantly reduced in CT+MJ+ET and US+MJ+ET samples after 72 h of storage by 53.4% and 86.6%, respectively, as compared with CT 0h samples. Based on the results herein obtained, the application of US can be an effective tool to enhance the extractability of certain glucocosinolate and pheniolic compounds in broccoli. Moreover, due to the synergistic effect observed on the accumulation of bioactive compounds, the combined application of US and MJ could be an effective approach to yield higher levels of glucosinolates and phenolic compounds in broccoli during storage. Additionally, recommendations for future investigations such as different US conditions, individual isothiocyanates analysis and analysis of gene expression were proposed in order to better understand the synergistic effect excerted by US and MJ on the accumulation of bioactive compounds in broccoli florets.
    • Concentración Atmosférica de Polen en el área Metropolitana de Monterrey. Relación con la Precipitación Pluvial y Relevancia en Enfermedades Alérgicas

      Garza Barbosa, Amelia M. (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 01/12/2000)
      Tesis presentada para obtener el grado de Maestro en ciencias especialidad Sitemas Ambientales
    • Design and Implementation of a UAV-based Platform for Air Pollution Monitoring and Source Identification

      Garza Castañón, Luis Eduardo; Yungaicela Naula, Noé Marcelo; Ponce Cuspinera, Luis; Vargas Martínez, Adriana (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      This document presents the thesis proposal for obtaining the Master of Science in Intelligent Systems. Technology, industry and government forecasts coincide that the planet will withstand a maximum of 50 years at the rate of current air pollution. Air pollution has reached critical levels causing major impacts on health and economy across the globe. Environmental monitoring and control agencies, as well as industries, require a reliable and cost-effective tool that is easy to deploy where required to assess contamination levels, and on that basis, take the necessary actions. Current measurement methods using pressurized balloons, satellite imagery, or earth stations result in considerable investment, as well as providing low spatial and temporal resolution. There are also systems for measuring air pollution using Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV), which are financed by large government institutions or international organizations whose budget and resources allow costly implementations. Other related works are limited to the capture of atmospheric data using the UAVs and offline analysis. This work presents the design and implementation of an open-source UAV-based platform for measuring atmospheric pollutants and an algorithm for the localization of the air pollutant sources with the use of a UAV and in-line processing of the pollutants data. The development of the UAV-based platform includes: the UAV mounting and characterization and the control system to guide the navigation of the vehicle, the appropriate sensors selection and integration to the UAV, the data transmission from the sensors onboard the UAV to the ground station, and the implementation of the user interface which is based on a web design. The algorithm for the air pollutant source localization is based on a metaheuristic component, to follow the increasing gradient of the pollutant concentration, and complemented with a probabilistic component to concentrate the searching to the most promising areas in the targeted environment. The results of this work are: Outdoors experiments of the UAV-based platform for the air pollutant monitoring and indoor experiments to validate the algorithm for the source localization. The results show effectiveness and robustness of the UAV-based platform and of the algorithm for the source identification.
    • Effect of ultrasound on protein yield and fate of alkaloids during lupin alkaline extraction process

      Chuck Hernández, Cristina Elizabeth; Othón Serna Saldívar, Sergio Román; Aguilar Acosta, Luis Alberto; Benavidez Lozano, Jorge Alejandro; Rodríguez Rodríguez, José (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-14)
      Protein isolates from legumes have attracted scientific attention because they are an efficient option to cover the daily protein requirement. One of the legumes with the highest protein content (20-50%) nowadays is Lupinus spp., with a good amino acid profile and moderate protein digestibility (≈ 70%) but with the presence, in certain species, of quinolizidine alkaloids (QA), toxic to the organism. The most popular method to QA removal is one based in washing with water, but inconvenient because of the high use of water and time. With the aim to propose eventually a new process for lupin detoxification, the objective of this work was the elucidation of the fate of QA during lupin protein extraction process assisted with ultrasound and the evaluation of the nutritional and functional properties of the protein fraction. Proximal characterization, concentration of anti-nutritional compounds, amino acid profile and protein solubility profile of flours from three lupin species were assessed: L. albus, L. angustifolious and L. mutabilis. The result showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) in protein concentration, total alkaloids and particle size between the three species flours. Considering the above, the species L. mutabilis and L. angustifolious were chosen to study the behavior of the protein fraction in terms of functionality (water absorption and nitrogen solubility), composition (protein yield and percentage reduction of alkaloids during the extraction process) and resistance to thermal treatments (displacement of denaturation temperature, change in secondary structure and modification of the electrophoretic profile). The results obtained for L. mutabilis described the ultrasound effect as beneficial for protein yield (14% more than control with 10 min ultrasound) and QA reduction from bagasse (81% less than control with 10 min ultrasound treatment) and protein isolate (50% less than control with 10 min ultrasound treatment). In addition, the change in protein structure and composition modified the functional and thermal properties of the protein, making the isolate a good candidate for food ingredient. In the other hand, L. angustifolious was more resistant to the ultrasound effect with no significant difference between treatments (10 and 15 min) and control but with the lower toxicity (3 ppm of QA in control protein isolate) and better amino acid score (0.85 of 15 min ultrasound treatment). These results will be useful to design processes to assist in the objective for meet protein demand of the population.
    • Effect of ultrasound treatment on bioactive compounds’ composition of soybean and red prickly pear used to develop a functional beverage

      Welti Chanes, Jorge Santos; Morales de la Peña, Mariana; Serrano Sandoval, Syra Nayely; Velázquez, Daniel Alberto Jacobo (2017-12-05)
      Soymilk and red prickly pear have nutraceutical properties. It has been reported that aglycone isoflavones in soymilk as well betalains, polyphenols, and vitamin C from red prickly pears have health-related attributes. Ultrasound(US) has been explored to enhance the content of phytochemicals in plant-based foods. Hence, the aim of this research was, to evaluate the effects of US treatment on the extractability and/or biosynthesis of antioxidants of soybeans and red prickly pears to elaborate a mixed beverage. Firstly, soybeans were sonicated with 100µm-20min at 30°C and soymilk was obtained. Individual isoflavones were quantified in the resultant soymilk and b-glucosidase activity was evaluated. Secondly, two studies were conducted with red prickly pears. In the first one, US was applied at different amplitudes(50, 75 and 100µm) and treatment times(5, 10, and 15min); and betalains, phenolics, and vitamin C concentration was quantified immediately after processing(0h) and after 24 and 48h of storage. The optimal conditions were employed in the second study(50µm-15min and 100µm-10min) and in addition to the quantification of antioxidants, the respiration rate and ethylene production were measured(0-48h, every 6h). Furthermore, tyrosinase activity was measured. Finally, a mixed beverage was prepared with soymilk extracted form sonicated soybeans and US-treated prickly pears(70:30 v/v) and the physicochemical and phytochemical properties were evaluated. Obtained results indicated that the activation of bglucosidase during US-processing of soybeans induced the interconversion of isoflavone glucosides to aglycone structures in the obtained soymilk. Furthermore, US-cavitation phenomena increased the extraction of isoflavones. On the other hand, immediately after US at 100µm-10min and during storage, the concentration of betalains on the peel and pulp of prickly pears augmented significantly, which was supported by the increase of tyrosinase activity. Furthermore, changes in the concentration of phenolics and vitamin C were also observed in the US-treated fruits. The data obtained from the evaluation of the respiration rate and ethylene production support that US affects both the extractability and the stimulation of biosynthetic pathways. The mixed beverage presented a high content of aglycone isoflavones, betalains, phenolics, and vitamin C which could have functional properties
    • Effects of uvb light, wounding stress and storage time on the biosynthesis of betalains, phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid in red prickly pears (opuntia ficus-indica cv. Rojo vigor)

      Jacobo Velázquez, Daniel Alberto; Ortega-Hernández, Erika; Benavides-Lozano, Jorge; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Welti-Chanes, Jorge (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-14)
      UVB light In the past years, abiotic stresses such as wounding and ultraviolet radiation have been studied as an effective tool to improve the accumulation of bioactive phytochemicals in fresh produce. Postharvest application of UVB-radiation and wounding stress induces the accumulation of secondary metabolites in horticultural crops. However, there are few studies evaluating the combined effects of both stresses Therefore, the present thesis evaluated, on the one hand, the separated and combined effects of UVB radiations and wounding stress on the total content of betalains, phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid in red prickly pear (Opuntia Ficus-Indica cv. Rojo Vigor) treated with UVB light (6.4 W•m-2) for 0, 15, 90 and 180 min, before and after storage (24 h at 16 °C); and on the other hand, the effects of UVB radiations and wounding stress, alone or in combination, on the profile of individual betalains and phenolic compounds, as well as the activity of the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis, in red prickly pear treated with UVB light (6.4 W•m-2) for 0 and 15 min, before and after storage (24 h at 16 °C). The highest phenolic accumulation occurred 24 h after UVB treatment (15 min) in whole pulp and peel, increasing by 125.8% and 33.8%, respectively. In the whole fruit pulp, there was a significant increment in kaempferol (64.5%), sinapoyl malate (187.7%), 1-O-β-D-Glucopyranosyl sinapate (57.7%), rosmarinic acid (584.5%), vanillic acid (15.1%), sinapic acid (23.3%), quercetin3-O-glucoside (28.4%) and kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside-7O-glucoside (57.7%). On the other hand, the whole fruit peel showed an increment in the content of kaempferol (631.5%), sinapoyl malate (172.7%), 1-O-β-D-Glucopyranosyl sinapate (505.7%), rosmarinic acid (394.5%), p-coumaric (53.9%), sinapic acid (639.3%), quercetin3-O-glucoside (133.4%), kaempferol 3-Oglucoside (160.9%), quercetin (425.2%) and kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside-7O-glucoside (63.7%). The increment in the PAL activity (1173.5% in pulp and 239.3% in peel) after 12 h of storage corresponds to the increment in content of phenolics. The highest betalain accumulation occurred 24 h after UVB treatment (15 min) in whole pulp and wounded peel, increasing by 49.8% and 33.1%, respectively. The whole fruit pulp showed a significant increment in muscaaurin VII (293.6%), indicaxanthin (316%), betanin (26.2%) and iso-betanin (70.6%); whereas vulgaxanthin III (-21.1%), betanidin (-78.9%), neobetanidin (-87.3%) and gomphrenin (-55.4%) decreased. On the other hand, the wounded fruit peel showed a significant increment in muscaaurin VII (33.2%), indicaxanthin (159.1%), betanin (161.8) and iso-betanin (98.7%). The increment in the TYR hydroxylase (744.1% in pulp and 332.9% in peel) and TYR oxidase activity (81.6% in pulp and 59.2% in peel), as well as cyclo- Dopa formation (637.2% in pulp and 439.3% in peel) after 12 h of storage corresponds to the increment in content of betalains. The highest ascorbic acid accumulation occurred 24 h after UVB treatment in wounded pulp and peel, increasing by 67.2% and 84.6%, respectively. The increment in the GalLDH activity (85.4% in pulp and 502.3% in peel) after 12 h of storage corresponds to the increment in content of ascorbic acid.Results indicated that the application UVB light alone or combined with wounding stress in red prickly pear can be used as an effective strategy to induce the accumulation of secondary metabolites with potential application in the food, dietary supplements and pharmaceutical industries; since these postharvest treatments are low cost, have no legal restrictions, and do not require complex equipment.  
    • Ejercicio de Implementación de una metodología TPM para línea de decapado mecánico

      Azarang, Mohammad R.; Villarreal W.Ching, Salvador; Smith Cornejo, Neale Ricardo; Rivera Guerrero, Gabriel de Jesús (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-14)
      El presente documento corresponde a una propuesta de tesis para la obtención del grado de Maestro en Ciencias con especialidad en sistemas de Calidad y Productividad. En el 2013 la empresa Steel Technologies de México S.A. de C.V. adquirió una línea para el decapado de acero con una nueva tecnología basada en decapado mecánico eliminando así el uso y contaminación de ácidos como se ha hecho durante décadas. Esta línea denominada Eco Pickling Surface conocida por sus siglas en inglés (EPS). Esta nueva tecnología se inició en el año 2007 siendo la línea de Steel Technologies la séptima línea en operar en el mundo y la única línea con 4 celda de operación Para Steel Technologies la línea ha representado grandes costos por su alta demanda de operación y mantenimiento requeridos. En base a lo anterior en este trabajo de investigación se busca una metodología para mejorar la rentabilidad de la línea es así como la aplicación del Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) la cual en base a la disciplina de 5´s, Siendo la línea antes mencionada la única línea en su especie en México, nuestro diseño basado en 9 pasos a seguir, los cuales se enfocan en investigaciones en mantenimiento reales y su efectividad a través de los costos generados, buscando reducir los mismos, así como los productos consumibles indirectos que requiere para operar. IX Después de inspeccionar las actividades de mantenimiento se observan reportes en los cuales personal de este departamento llenaba formatos en oficina y no en la línea lo cual implicaba no revisar el equipo en su totalidad y esto llevaba a no cumplir con los programas de mantenimiento preventivos oportuna y adecuadamente. Se optimizaron las actividades más recurrentes de la línea con proyectos Kaizen y se obtuvo una mejora considerable de ahorro en tiempos, se hizo más eficiente las actividades y como resultados nos dio una reducción en paros de mantenimiento, lo cual en números cuantitativos se obtuvo una reducción en costos. Se detectó que los mismos estaban en aumento en virtud a dobles actividades y gasto por la mala planeación y eliminación de los mismos programas, la pérdida de tiempo también se detectó de manera importante, así como la mala utilización de herramientas no aptas para ciertas tareas. Una vez aplicado el modelo se procede a la recolección de datos para comparar con los datos obtenidos en periodos de tiempo previos y se muestra una mejoría considerable en los gastos de indirectos de la línea y cambios mejorables en la aplicación de actividades de mantenimiento siendo más efectivos y en mejor tiempo. También se detectó que, aun mejorando las actividades de mantenimiento, se encontraron algunas pérdidas para la empresa las cuales se citaran más adelante.
    • Especiación Química de Hidrocarburos Provenientes del Uso de Combustibles Fósiles en el Sector Industrial-Edición Única

      Aguilar Gómez, José A. (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2005-05-01)
      La contaminación del aire urbano ha llegado a ser rápidamente un problema ambiental de interés pÚblico en las Últimás décadas, debido al crecimiento de la actividad industrial, del transporte, la quema de combustibles fósiles y las altas tasas de urbanización, lo que ha traído como consecuencia un incremento en la concentración y variedad de los contaminantes. Todos los grandes centros urbanos del mundo, como la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México (ZMVM), presentan problemás de calidad del aire, donde tradicionalmente se estudian especies como los óxidos de nitrógeno (NOx), el monóxido de carbono (CO), los óxidos de azufre (SOx), el material particulado, y los hidrocarburos totales (HCT). Sin embargo, se han realizado pocos trabajos que permitan conocer en forma específica las diferentes especies químicas individuales que conforman a algunos de estos contaminantes.
    • Evaluation of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites produced by additive manufacturing for design guidelines

      Ahuett Garza, Horacio; Orta Castañon, Pedro; Naranjo Lozada, Juan Miguel; Kurfess, Thomas; Urbina Coronado, Pedro (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-11)
      The use of additive manufacturing (AM) in many industries start to be a trend. The flexibility to manufacture complex geometries and the development of new AM materials and systems open new research fields. Recently, a family of technologies that produce fiber reinforced components has been introduced, widening the options available to designers. To find optimal structures using new AM technologies, guidelines for the design of 3D printed composite parts are needed. This thesis presents an evaluation of the effects that different geometric parameters have on the tensile properties of 3D printed composite. Two methods for manufacturing 3D printing composites, chopped and continuous fiber reinforcement (CFR), were analyzed. Parameters such as infill density and infill geometric patterns of chopped composite material, as well as fiber volume fraction and fiber arrangement of CFR composites are varied. The effect of the location of initial deposit point of reinforcement fibers on the tensile properties of the test specimens is also explored. From the findings, some design guidelines are proposed. Using these guidelines two application cases for Industry 4.0 systems were completed. A variation of the Rule of Mixtures (ROM) that provides a way to estimate the elastic modulus of a 3D printed composites is presented. Findings may be used by designers to define the best construction parameters for 3D printed composite parts.
    • Factores clave para el fortalecimiento de la procuración de donativos en un Banco de Alimentos

      Loera Hernández, Imelda de Jesús; Rivera Campa, Miguel Ángel; Caffarel Rodríguez, Graciela; García Reyes, Heriberto (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      La profesionalización es un concepto indispensable para las organizaciones de la sociedad civil, ya que el desarrollo de nuevas habilidades asegura que sus miembros se encuentren preparados para cumplir con el objeto social de generar un cambio tangible en la comunidad.  En el caso particular de los Bancos de Alimentos en México, las organizaciones se dan la tarea de fortalecer sus procesos para adoptar una cultura de calidad, con el fin de elevar su nivel de madurez para promover la seguridad alimentaria entre los sectores sociales más vulnerables del país. Por tal motivo, la presente tesis propone ciertos factores clave que favorezcan la elevación del nivel de desempeño en la institución, en materia de procuración de donativos en especie, con el fin de contribuir a su fortalecimiento institucional por medio de la mejora continua de sus procesos. Para proponer dichos factores, es necesario la comparación de modelos de procuración al analizar sus similitudes y establecer conceptos importantes para que los miembros de la institución puedan realizar sus actividades de forma eficiente. Todo esto con el fin de estandarizar el proceso de procuración de donativos en especie para que los bancos afiliados a la Asociación Mexicana de Bancos de Alimentos puedan elevar su nivel de madurez y desarrollo institucional.
    • Genetic transformation of Artemia franciscana by electroporation

      Aguilar-Yañez Jose Manuel; Licona-Cassani, Cuautemoc; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Alberto Constantino; Brunck, Marion E.G. (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-25)
      Artemia franciscana also known as brine shrimp, and sea monkey is a halophilic crustacean used in aquaculture as living food and had a little role in research as toxicological model. Despite its easy handling and availability, Artemia barely has genetic engineering. The objective of this work is to develop a protocol for the genetic transformation of Artemia franciscana using electroporation and diapause cysts. Decapsulated cysts were electroporated with exponential decay voltage and square wave pulse, the efficiency was calculated. The effect of the plasmid DNA used, and the voltage were evaluated. Square wave pulse shows a better efficiency compared to the exponential. The concentration of DNA has no effect on the efficiency of transfection. Voltage at one level (1000 V·cm-1) had the best efficiency of transfection, but also the worst hatching. With protocol and the information generated, it will be possible to evaluate genetic regulatory elements to the future develop of a tool box for genetic manipulation.
    • Mechatronic design of a fast-non-contact measurement system for inspection of castings parts in production line

      Ahuett-Garza, Horacio; Kurfess, Thomas R.; Guamán-Lozada, Darío F.; Urbina Coronado, Pedro Daniel; Orta Castañon, Pedro (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2019-05-11)
      Product recalls for suppliers (Tier 1-2-3) and OEM represents high financial losses and reputation damage. This has motivated manufacturers to inspect 100% of the specifications of 100% parts produced to avoid liability risks. In general, the manufactured parts are measured in CMM machines, the main problem is that it takes a long time to make the measurement. Therefore, CMM machines cannot be installed in a continuous line process. This problem has led industries to install gauging machines to have full control over their production. Gauging machines are not flexible, a number of sensors equal to the number of targets to be inspected is needed, complicating the maintenance and increasing the cost. Finally, most gauges are of the go-no go type, which only validates whether the characteristics comply with a standard. In addition, due to the arrival of the concept of industry 4.0, companies have seen the need to develop fast, reliable and accurate inspection machines capable of sending proper information about themselves or the product to the cloud. This work presents a new measurement system for an In-Line die-casting process. The main characteristic is the use of a linear motor and non-contact measurement technology for fast and reliable measurements. Also, the machine uses a novel kinematics coupling configuration to allow easy, fast, and accurate positioning of the part in the measurements area.  To be compatible with Industry 4.0 the inspection machine is equipped with sensors to send process information to the cloud like operation temperature, vibrations, and dynamic machine behavior.
    • Modelación de la Calidad del Aire en el Valle del CAUCA, Colombia

      Gomez Moreno, Rosa M. (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2001-01-05)
      El deterioro de la calidad del aire causado por las fuentes antropogénicas, específicamente por el consumo de combustible fósil, es significativo en el estado del Valle del Cauca y en Colombia. En Santiago de Cali, capital del estado, solo a partir de 1999 se inicia el monitoreo de la calidad del aire con 8 estaciones ubicadas a lo largo de la ciudad. A la fecha no existe ningÚn estudio en Colombia que determine el comportamiento, concentración y dispersión de los contaminantes en el corredor industrial comprendido entre Cali, Palmira y Yumbo. Para estudiar la formación de oxidantes fotoquímicos, se utilizó el modelo de simulación de calidad del aire CIT (California Institute of Technology and Carnegie Institute of Technology). El modelo usa como datos de entrada: condiciones meteorológicas de: temperatura, humedad, radiación solar, radiación ultravioleta, magnitud y dirección de los vientos, condiciones de frontera, topografía, usos del suelo, calidad del aire como concentraciones iniciales y las emisiones atmosféricas. Se realizó el inventario de emisiones. Para fuentes móviles se utilizó el MOBILES de la EPA modificado para la ciudad de Monterrey. Para las fuentes fijas se utilizó la información de las industrias con chimeneas superiores a los 15 m. Por Último, se determinaron las emisiones para fuentes de área considerando Únicamente la quema de la caña de azÚcar. En este proceso se utilizaron los factores de emisión de la EPA. El total de la información se incorporó al modelo realizando un proceso previo de especiación química. El dominio de modelación abarca un área de (45 x 45) km (corredor industrial). Los resultados de la concentración de ozono calculados por el CIT, se comparan con los datos de las estaciones de monitoreo para calibrar el modelo utilizando las series de tiempo. El periodo de tiempo seleccionado para la modelación correspondió al mes de Octubre de 1999 debido a las altas concentraciones de ozono registradas en las estaciones de monitoreo. Los periodos de simulación son de una hora para realizar la interpolación de la información. Los resultados finales escogidos correspondieron al 6 de Octubre de 1999 teniendo en cuenta el ajuste de los datos simulados con respecto a los reales. Una vez seleccionada la información del 6 de Octubre, se elaboran los mapas de concentración de contaminantes, conformados por los precursores de ozono: NO, NO2 y el Ozono mismo. También se ilustra la información obtenida sobre el SO2, como una forma de evaluar la actividad industrial en el área y la calidad de los combustibles utilizados. En este proceso se utilizan los sistemas de información geográfica, que se son una herramienta clave para visualizar los resultados obtenidos de la simulación de la calidad del aire. Estos resultados indican también que se cumplieron con los objetivos planteados. A pesar de algunas limitantes de información, se obtuvo un panorama representativo de la calidad del aire en el Valle del Cauca, específicamente en el corredor industrial conformado por los municipios de Cali, Yumbo y Palmira. Los resultados muestran que sí se supera la norma Colombiana de Calidad del Aire establecida para la concentración del ozono de: 170.0 (xg/m3 (86.7 ppb), específicamente en las horas de mayor radiación solar entre las 9:00 a.m. y las 5:00 p.m., abarcando en forma aproximada el 24% del área estudiada. Se observa que los resultados de la simulación de la calidad del aire global para el área de estudio, represente razonablemente las condiciones existentes en la zona de estudio para ciertos días. En otros días se encontró que la predicción del modelo sobre la calidad del aire no se apegó a las condiciones monitoreadas. Lo anterior puede ser debido a calidad de la información para el cálculo de las emisiones y la variación espacial y temporal de las mismas. Los mapas de concentración se ubican sobre el plano del área en estudio, con el objeto de visualizar su comportamiento tanto en zonas urbanas como rurales. Este tipo de resultados, son una herramienta muy importante de planificación para el desarrollo de estrategias del control de las emisiones y para la planificación de los usos del suelo en el Valle del Cauca.