• Wavelets for spindle health diagnosis

      Morales Menéndez, Rubén; Villagómes Garzón, Silvia Cristina; Vallejo Guevara, Antonio; Hernández Alcántara, Diana (2018-12-04)
      Industrial development and customer demands have increased the need to look for high-quality products at low cost and, at the same time, ensure safety during manufacturing. As a result, rotary machinery and its components have become increasingly complex, making their repairs more expensive. Therefore, many efforts must be focused in preventing breakdowns in machines, for which real-time fault diagnosis and prognosis are mandatory. Considering that the element most prone to failure in a machining center is the spindle, and with it its bearing system, the diagnosis of failures of these elements is of paramount importance. To ensure the safe operation of the bearing, some methods of fault detection have been developed based on different techniques. One of the most commonly used is vibration analysis. There are several difficulties when dealing with analyzing vibration signals, they are complex and non-stationary signals with a large amount of noise. Conventional analysis have not been able to solve this problem, thus, alternative methods such as Wavelet Transform have been gaining ground. The following research is focused in detecting bearing faults, as well as the main shaft faults, which eventually also lead to bearing damage, by using wavelets. Different signals, presenting distinct bearing fault conditions, of different data sets are evaluated for validating the proposed methodology. An exhaustive analysis has been developed for selecting the best parameters of this methodology. As results, an improvement around 20% in magnitude of bearing fault frequency peaks was found, compared to the traditional methodology. The proposal of giving more weight to high energy components allows increasing these fault frequencies, as well as reducing low frequency noise. This provides a great advantage in pursuit of an automatic fault detection. An industrial approach was also validated, by proving that the proposed methodology is more immune to noise. Even though, the magnitudes of the bearing fault peaks are diminished by noise, a comparison between the proposal and the traditional methodology reveal an increase of approximately 70% of those magnitudes. Demonstrating that the fault information is barely attenuated by noise. Also, an early diagnosis was proved, which could benefit future studies of fault prognosis. Finally, the filtering property of wavelet decomposition is exploited to limit the frequencies of the signal to few harmonics of the shaft speed. This with the aim of restricting the spectrum for detecting other faults, that mainly affect the spindle shaft, which are diagnosed by analyzing speed harmonics and subharmonics. Thus, a complete methodology is proposed to deal with the main spindle faults.
    • Diseño de modelo de gestión de la calidad enfocado al tercer sector

      Olivares Olivares, Silvia Lizett; López Mendoza, Diana Anai; Cantú Delgado, José Humberto; García Justicia, Javier José (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-29)
      Sin lugar a duda, el Tercer Sector o mejor conocido como “Sector social” ha tenido un impacto importante en nuestro país en los últimos años, esto debido al aumento en el número de instituciones que se han sumado a diferentes causas y al aumento en el número de personas que trabajan en el sector. Sin embargo, gestionar la calidad y establecer mecanismos que permitan evaluar la transparencia, eficacia y eficiencia en el sector, así como la calidad de vida en los beneficiarios se ha convertido en uno de los aspectos más complicados de lograr. Por ello, la presente investigación tuvo como objetivo valorar el nivel de la calidad en que se encuentra el Tercer Sector en Nuevo León a través de un Modelo de Gestión de la Calidad apropiado a las mismas en donde se establecieron once aspectos que son relevantes para su establecimiento. Para lograrlo, se llevó a cabo una investigación en 14 organizaciones de Nuevo León tanto Asociaciones Civiles (A.C.) como Asociaciones de Beneficencia Privada (A.B.P.) aplicando el método cuantitativo con un diseño no experimental y de tipo transaccional descriptivo durante en el mes de junio del 2017. Los resultados indican que actualmente, el Tercer Sector en Nuevo León se encuentra ubicado en el tercer nivel de la calidad con una calificación general de 3.09, lo que quiere decir que el sector aún está en el proceso de maduración y establecimiento de características comunes que aseguren el desarrollo, la permanencia y el crecimiento sólido del sector.
    • Genetic transformation of Artemia franciscana by electroporation

      Aguilar-Yañez Jose Manuel; Licona-Cassani, Cuautemoc; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Alberto Constantino; Brunck, Marion E.G. (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-25)
      Artemia franciscana also known as brine shrimp, and sea monkey is a halophilic crustacean used in aquaculture as living food and had a little role in research as toxicological model. Despite its easy handling and availability, Artemia barely has genetic engineering. The objective of this work is to develop a protocol for the genetic transformation of Artemia franciscana using electroporation and diapause cysts. Decapsulated cysts were electroporated with exponential decay voltage and square wave pulse, the efficiency was calculated. The effect of the plasmid DNA used, and the voltage were evaluated. Square wave pulse shows a better efficiency compared to the exponential. The concentration of DNA has no effect on the efficiency of transfection. Voltage at one level (1000 V·cm-1) had the best efficiency of transfection, but also the worst hatching. With protocol and the information generated, it will be possible to evaluate genetic regulatory elements to the future develop of a tool box for genetic manipulation.
    • Immunoaffinity aqueous two-phase systems to establish novel bioprocesses for the primary recovery of CD133+ stem cells

      Rito Palomares, Marco Antonio; Zavala Arcos, Judith; González González, Mirna Alejandra; Ornelas González, Alonso; Rito Palomares, Marco Antonio; Zavala Arcos, Judith; González González, Mirna Alejandra (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-25)
      A short processing time and efficient scale-up stem cell isolation bioprocess is essential to exploit the potential of these cells for the treatment of multiple chronic diseases. Various methodologies have been used for stem cell recovery, however, most of them present economical and/or time-consuming drawbacks. In this work, the characterization and optimization of immunoaffinity aqueous two-phase systems, a liquid-liquid based separation technology enhanced with the PEGylation of the antibody, was conducted with the aim of increasing the specificity for the recovery of CD133+ stem cells from human umbilical cord blood samples. The methodology consisted in evaluating the partitioning of the different PEGylated antibodies (amine, carboxyl, thiol, succinimidyl ester, methoxy PEG and maleimide) in three previously studied aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS); PEG-dextran (DEX), Ucon-DEX and Ficoll-DEX. Subsequently, an optimization step was accomplished to manipulate the partition behavior of the CD133/2-pure antibody to the desired phase in the selected systems by varying (increasing and decreasing) two parameters closely related with the partitioning of molecules in aqueous two-phase systems; tie-line length (TLL) and volume ratio (VR). Afterwards, the partitioning behavior of the six different PEGylated antibodies in the optimized systems was tested. According to the results, the PEGylation of the CD133/2-biotin antibody induced a favorable change with respect to the non-PEGylated one when Ucon-DEX system was used, fractionating it to both phases. Likewise, the optimization of the systems showed to be effective to induce a change in the partition preference of the antibody. The best results were obtained when Ucon-DEX or PEG-DEX systems with TLL 15% w/w or 20% w/w with VR 3 were combined. Finally, PEGylated antibodies were added to the selected optimized systems. Even though a shift in the fractionation preference of the PEGylated CD133/2-biotin antibody was achieved in the optimized systems, it was not the adequate partition to justify the evaluation of this immunoaffinity ATPS with human umbilical cord samples. Both PEGylation and optimization showed to be effective to induce a change in the partition preference of the antibody, however, further studies are required to find the optimal system composition that will fractionate 100% of the antibody to the contaminants opposite phase, making this system an ideal candidate to be tested for the selectivity of CD133+ stem cells.
    • “Determination of interaction properties between PEGylated proteins and a modified resin by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) and FTIR”

      Aguilar-Jiménez, Oscar Alejandro; Magaña, Paulyna; Gonzalez-Valdez, José Guillermo; Ramos de la Peña, Ana Mayela (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-25)
      PEGylated proteins are an increasing important class of therapeutic drugs due to their improved pharmacokinetic characteristics and solubility over their corresponding native forms. PEGylation is the covalent attachment of one or more polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules to a protein. Despite the many advantages of PEGylated drugs, one of the major challenges is the purification step after the chemical reaction. The main purpose of this project is to determine the nature of chemical interactions between a modified resin with PEG 5000 g/mol and PEGylated proteins that results in a previously demonstrated ability of such resins for the resolution of PEGylated proteins. A chromatographical separation of PEGylated proteins was additionally demonstrated for lysozyme using the modified resin Sepharose 6B-PEG5000 previously reported for PEGylated RNase A. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy provided insight of the resin modification. The interaction thermodynamics associated with PEGylated proteins in hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) with modified resin was carried out in with an ITC (Isothermal Titration Calorimetry) analysis. The specific enthalpy (∆G) was found to be exothermic for both proteins in potassium phosphate buffer with 1.5 M ammonium sulfate at 25ºC. MonoPEGylated proteins showed large negative entropy (-T∆S) values, related to the enhanced hydrophobic interaction between PEG5000 molecules from the resin and PEGylated protein forms. In addition, binding constants (K) of PEGylated proteins to modified resin were slightly higher compared to unmodified proteins.
    • Data-Driven approach to topology change location in distribution networks using microPMUs

      Mayo Maldonado, Jonathan Carlos; Salas Esquivel, Ernesto Adán; Valdez Resendiz, Jesús Elías; Micheloud Vernackt, Osvaldo Miguel (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-24)
      Motivated by the aim to increase the renewable energy penetration into the grid, the Mexican government established the objective of producing the half of its energy from clean sources by 2050. This is also a tendency in the rest of the world, but utilities are not yet prepared to deal with the challenges that the proliferation of this change will bring. A way to solve such issues is by evolving from the antiquated power system model to a smart grid, by building a control and communications infrastructure, and by introducing sensing and metering technologies. In this sense, micro-phasor measurement units (μPMU) are devices tailored for such purpose; but this technology requires specializing research in order to develop tools for its applications on field. Driven by this urgency, we established the objective of building an application based on the μPMU technology. Therefore, in this thesis we propose an algorithm to topology change location in distribution networks using μPMU data; based on a behavioral system theory in which we use any set of variables that are available for measurement within a network. Such approach differentiates from classic methods, since it does not require any information about the network model, and it does not assume any particular character of disturbance to locate the occurrence within the network. MATLAB simulations and experimentation using μPMUs and a DSpace Data Acquisition Card were implemented with satisfactory results, since the algorithm demonstrated to be capable to locate single topology changes in distribution networks.
    • Pipeline evaluation of clustering algorithms aimed at clinical data

      Temez Peña, José G.; Duarte Dyck, David Absalón; Terashima Marín, Hugo; Treviño Alvarado, Víctor M. (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-22)
      Disease understanding is key in designing effective treatments and diagnostic tools. A key aspect of this understanding is grouping the patients according to their phenotypes. Phenotypes are patterns in the characteristics of certain members of a population that are correlated with a particular illness. This grouping may be useful in revealing associations between disease risk, treatment responses, and other key clinical outcomes. Once these associations are found, it is easier to design tailored diagnosis tools and effective personalized treatments. To achieve this grouping goal, data is key, and recent advancements in digital technology have made possible to capture hundreds and thousands of clinical data that may be used to group patients into different disease phenotypes. To handle hundreds of patients, with hundreds of features, clinical researchers use clustering algorithms that automatically find hiding association between subjects. These algorithms are very useful once the researcher selects the correct clustering and configure it to the specific research task. Selecting the correct clustering algorithm is time-consuming, and setting up their parameters may take several trail and test sessions. On the other hand, computer scientists have developed several clustering metrics that can evaluate the fitness of the clustering algorithms to the data, and computer power has increased, allowing the automated testing and evaluation of the clustering algorithms in the specific data set. The objective of this proposal was the development of an automated computer pipeline that evaluates several clustering algorithms, providing metrics regarding important features such as clustering stability (Jaccard index) and clustering relevance (ANOVA test). Furthermore, the pipeline returns the number of natural clusters that may be useful for the given dataset (Dunn index). The designed pipeline was set up to evaluate the classical clustering algorithms of k-means, Fuzzy C-means, and Hierarchical clustering, but it can be used to test a user-provided clustering method. The evaluation consisted in bootstrapping the data and extracting the Dunn and Jaccard clustering indexes in a meaningful manner. Furthermore, the clinical relevance of the final clusters was evaluated using an ANOVA test, that provided indications of disease phenotypes. All the test results are plotted and the user can visually evaluate the performance of the different clustering methods in their data. The result of this development was deployed in R (github.com/majordave/clustest). The utility of the pipeline was tested on synthetic data sets and two radiomics datasets associated with the development of Osteoarthritis (OA) and the presence of breast cancer from mammograms. Furthermore, we contrasted the closeting approach to supervised learning of a large dataset of the association of nutrition with OA symptoms. Hence, the present work established that the automated robust evaluation of the utility of clustering algorithms in clinical data is feasible, and provided a publicly available software tool that can be used by any clinical researchers to select the best clustering algorithm for their data.
    • Pulsation regimes near static borders of optically injected semiconductor lasers

      Campuzano Treviño, Gabriel; Aldaya Grande, Ivan Artiz; Rodriguez-Martinez, Sergio Luis; Castañón Avila, Gerardo Antonio; Arizpe, Israel de León (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-21)
      The semiconductor laser injected externally by another laser (master-slave configuration) is a theoretical and experimental tool suitable for the scientific exploration of non-linear effects. Using numerical tools we have found pulsation regimes aside from period 1 and period 2. Techniques such as finding the maximum and minima of a temporal series, ratio between maxima and minima and the total harmonic distortion can be very useful to find and characterize pulsation regimes. Pulsation regimes where found near the borders of the stable synchronization region of the laser. The characterized region has a range of frequency from 150MHz to 2.78GHz with a frequency detuning from 0.98GHz to 3GHz.
    • Design and development of a reconfigurable die for thermoforming process

      Cortés Ramírez, Jorge Armando; Reyna Yáñez, Felipe Osvaldo; Cárdenas Alemán, Eduardo; Aguayo Téllez, Humberto (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-17)
      According to the World Economic Forum (WEF), the nascent technologies such as Internet of Things (IoT), 3D printing, and advanced robotics represent between 70%-80% of the product market, manufacturing and services in North America and Europe. In this context, the designing and implementation of reconfigurable tools can generate more flexible processes, oriented to improve the productivity in manufacturing industry, especially in molding and thermoforming packaging. Consequently, a reconfigurable die based on shape-memory alloy actuators, is a solution for attending the industry challenges, due to its inclusion of a microstructural-based, temperature-based, and time-based constitutive model theory for its implementation. Within these challenges exists the need of fabrication of millions of pieces due to its limitation with a low-volume production, and high investment and maintenance tool costs. The objective of this thesis work is the development of a technology that allows manufacturing variable-shape packages through a reconfigurable die with a thermoforming process. The functionality and performance of the technology lie within the application of a shape-memory alloy theory for a reconfigurable system; the development of a functional prototype with both NiTi-based and stepper-based motion mechanisms; and the development of a technology roadmap that allows having a vision of the potential customer segment of the product and/or technology, according to their needs and opportunities.
    • Hilbert-Huang transform based methodology for bearing fault detection

      Vallejo Guevara, Antonio Jr.; Morales Menéndez, Rubén; Campos García, Rubén; Ibarra Zárate, David Isaac (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-16)
      Rotating machinery is of great importance for manufacturing industry, and therefore huge investments for their acquisition are made every year. Machine preservation plays an important role in the exploitation of this resource. Rotating machines are more susceptible to certain types of faults, investigations report that at least 42 % of the root causes of failure in rotating machinery are related with bearings. To detect the bearing condition many techniques have been developed. One of the most reliable is vibration analysis. The Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) has been used for vibration analysis and has gained attention in recent years, a topic of controversy in this method is the selection of the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) with fault information. Statistical parameters can be used to describe the characteristics of vibration signals, this attribute can be exploited to select the IMFs. There are many time domain features used for signal analysis. In this research, a study of 17 statistical parameters was made to determine which one is the best to represent IMFs with fault information. As a result of this analysis a new methodology based on HHT is proposed. This methodology deals with the IMF selection with the use of KR (Kurtosis x RMS) to detect the IMFs with fault information, and can be used to detect incipient bearing faults. The proposed methodology was validated with 18 signals from the Case Western Reserve University (CWRU), Tian-Yau Wu, and the society for Machinery Failure Prevention Technology (MFPT Society) databases. For the 18 analyzed signals, only one IMF was wrongly selected. The cause of this error was the end defect produced in the EMD, this caused the KR amplitude to increase even tough the IMF did not have fault information. The results on the Envelope spectrum from 14 signals were clear with fault components with large amplitude. For the remaining four signals the results on the Envelope spectrum was noisy, but the fault fault components were distinguishable.Rotating machinery is of great importance for manufacturing industry, and therefore huge investments for their acquisition are made every year. Machine preservation plays an important role in the exploitation of this resource. Rotating machines are more susceptible to certain types of faults, investigations report that at least 42 % of the root causes of failure in rotating machinery are related with bearings. To detect the bearing condition many techniques have been developed. One of the most reliable is vibration analysis. The Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) has been used for vibration analysis and has gained attention in recent years, a topic of controversy in this method is the selection of the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) with fault information. Statistical parameters can be used to describe the characteristics of vibration signals, this attribute can be exploited to select the IMFs. There are many time domain features used for signal analysis. In this research, a study of 17 statistical parameters was made to determine which one is the best to represent IMFs with fault information. As a result of this analysis a new methodology based on HHT is proposed. This methodology deals with the IMF selection with the use of KR (Kurtosis x RMS) to detect the IMFs with fault information, and can be used to detect incipient bearing faults. The proposed methodology was validated with 18 signals from the Case Western Reserve University (CWRU), Tian-Yau Wu, and the society for Machinery Failure Prevention Technology (MFPT Society) databases. For the 18 analyzed signals, only one IMF was wrongly selected. The cause of this error was the end defect produced in the EMD, this caused the KR amplitude to increase even tough the IMF did not have fault information. The results on the Envelope spectrum from 14 signals were clear with fault components with large amplitude. For the remaining four signals the results on the Envelope spectrum was noisy, but the fault fault components were distinguishable.
    • Environmental impact of conventional manufacturing and additive manufacturing in lifecycle of turbine blade

      Rodríguez González, Ciro Ángel; Siller Carrillo, Héctor Rafael; Vila Pastor, Carlos; Torres Carrillo, Sharon Andrea; Vega, Yadira (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-16)
      The exponential growth of additive manufacturing technologies is not only improving production processes to achieve functional requirements for products, but it could also help to minimize environmental impacts. In order to align a green product lifecycle management vision, companies need to implement emerging technologies and define a set of metrics that measure the benefits of the change. Each product requires a particular and optimized manufacturing process plan, and each production phase must achieve a significant reduction of critical metrics for the whole Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This study provides a comprehensive and comparative LCA of two manufacturing process plans for the case study of an aircraft engine turbine blade. The first process consists of a combination of Investment Casting and Precision Machining and the second consists in the replacement of Investment casting by Selective Laser Melting as an emergent process for near net shape fabrication. The collected data for the comparison includes Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidification Potential (AP), Ozone layer Depletion Potential (ODP), Human Toxicity Potential (HTP), Ecotoxicity and Abiotic Depletion Potential (ADP).
    • Metodología para optimización de proceso de preparación de pedidos en rutas de distribución secundaria mediante rediseño de almacén de vehículo de carga

      Smith Cornejo, Neale Ricardo; Cárdenas Barrón, Leopoldo Eduardo; Garza Arrambide, Gustavo Adolfo; Tercero Gómez, Víctor Gustavo (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      La gestión de inventario para productos de consumo que son perecederos, es decir con un tiempo de vida de anaquel menor a 30 días, representa un enorme reto para las áreas de logística y distribución. Este desafío se debe principalmente a temas de inocuidad, conservación de cadena de frío, así como el control del inventario almacenado dentro la unidad y el cumplimiento al programa de reparto, lo cual permita mantener niveles de servicio adecuados con los clientes. En la industria existen diferentes modelos de gestionar las ventas, para el presente caso de estudio se aplica el modelo de venta a bordo, en el cual el vendedor gestiona la venta y el reparto del producto en una única visita a los clientes. Por esta razón la administración del inventario y su acomodo dentro de la unidad resulta un tema de alta relevancia dentro de la investigación. En esta tesis, se propone una metodología para optimizar el acomodo de productos dentro de la unidad, con lo cual permita al vendedor identificar más fácilmente la ubicación de los productos y con ello reducir la distancia recorrida en la preparación de los pedidos, así como los tiempos dedicados a dicha actividad. A si mismo se evalúan algunas variantes adicionales al diseño estándar, con la finalidad de evaluar el impacto de algunas de las variables relacionadas al proceso de preparación de los pedidos. Se probaron diferentes diseños obteniendo resultados favorables en la mayoría de los diseños, aunque particularmente fueron bastante positivos los resultados obtenidos en los diseños con canastillas reducidas un 11% respecto al volumen estándar, ya que se logró disminuir la distancia promedio por “pick” un 8.7% respecto a la propuesta estándar.   Las variables que más impactan en el proceso de preparación de pedidos son el tamaño de canastillas, el volumen de los productos y la demanda.
    • Design and Implementation of a UAV-based Platform for Air Pollution Monitoring and Source Identification

      Garza Castañón, Luis Eduardo; Yungaicela Naula, Noé Marcelo; Ponce Cuspinera, Luis; Vargas Martínez, Adriana (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      This document presents the thesis proposal for obtaining the Master of Science in Intelligent Systems. Technology, industry and government forecasts coincide that the planet will withstand a maximum of 50 years at the rate of current air pollution. Air pollution has reached critical levels causing major impacts on health and economy across the globe. Environmental monitoring and control agencies, as well as industries, require a reliable and cost-effective tool that is easy to deploy where required to assess contamination levels, and on that basis, take the necessary actions. Current measurement methods using pressurized balloons, satellite imagery, or earth stations result in considerable investment, as well as providing low spatial and temporal resolution. There are also systems for measuring air pollution using Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV), which are financed by large government institutions or international organizations whose budget and resources allow costly implementations. Other related works are limited to the capture of atmospheric data using the UAVs and offline analysis. This work presents the design and implementation of an open-source UAV-based platform for measuring atmospheric pollutants and an algorithm for the localization of the air pollutant sources with the use of a UAV and in-line processing of the pollutants data. The development of the UAV-based platform includes: the UAV mounting and characterization and the control system to guide the navigation of the vehicle, the appropriate sensors selection and integration to the UAV, the data transmission from the sensors onboard the UAV to the ground station, and the implementation of the user interface which is based on a web design. The algorithm for the air pollutant source localization is based on a metaheuristic component, to follow the increasing gradient of the pollutant concentration, and complemented with a probabilistic component to concentrate the searching to the most promising areas in the targeted environment. The results of this work are: Outdoors experiments of the UAV-based platform for the air pollutant monitoring and indoor experiments to validate the algorithm for the source localization. The results show effectiveness and robustness of the UAV-based platform and of the algorithm for the source identification.
    • Effect of electromagnetic fields in the process of arc extinction in molded case circuit breakers

      Viramontes Brown, Federico Ángel; Gutiérrez Villanueva, Efraín; Chávez Campos, David Alejandro; Gutiérrez Villanueva, Efrain; Valerio Lejia, José de Jesús (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      The new computational tools developed in the last decade are a great contribution to solve complex problems related to the design of circuit breakers. In the past, the experimental research was almost the unique way to improve this kind of technology, a lot of tests were made at laboratories and it was so expensive. Finite Element Analysis made possible to simulate scenarios and develop new technology supporting experimental test and decreasing the number of experimental essays. This thesis proposes the analysis of a module of arc extinction of a Molded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB) by using Finite Element Method (FEM) software. In this work, the Lorentz force that moves the arc to the arc chutes and lets the elimination of the electric arc is calculated and a model is proposed that determines the contribution of each element of the MCCB to increase or align this magnetic force at the arc. The characteristics of the arc chute are reviewed too, the features analyzed were: the shape of plates, the material used in their fabrication, the influence of the number of plates in the Lorentz forces, and the variation of the distance between plates. The contribution to the Lorentz forces at the arc of the main elements of the module of arc extinction is shown in this work. It is also determined the configurations that allow a better design in the construction of arc chutes. As results, we obtain that the main purpose of the cheeks in the MCCB arc module extinction is to align the magnetic field in the arc. All other steel components increase the Lorentz force in it, accelerating the process of extinction. The best material to increase the magnetic forces is the AFK1 due to its high level of magnetic saturation but this material is so expensive. As a conclusion of this work, we obtain a methodology to design and calculate the effects of the magnetic fields in the arc produced in the chamber extinction of the MCCB.
    • Sistema de administración de energía utilizando Internet de las Cosas (IoT)

      Baez Moreno, Jesús Antonio; Llamas Terrés, Armando Rafael; Lizárraga Osuna, David; Caramago Reyes, Luis Enrique (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      Se desarrolló un sistema de administración de energía utilizando Internet de las Cosas (IoT), el cual gestiona los equipos de aire acondicionado en instalaciones comerciales y edificios, pudiendo lograr ahorros en energía y demanda. Además, es completamente configurable y funciona en empresas con cualquier número de sucursales y aires acondicionados. El sistema está compuesto por un dispositivo central, que cuenta con una interfaz web, desde el cual se puede monitorear y controlar los equipos de aire acondicionado; por módulos remotos, los cuales envían y reciben información de manera inalámbrica vía WiFi, y son los encargados de medir la temperatura y humedad, así como controlar a los aires acondicionados; y finalmente por gateways que sirven como puente de comunicación entre el dispositivo central y los módulos remotos en caso de que existan múltiples redes. Para el desarrollo del sistema se utilizó solamente hardware y software de código abierto. Dentro del hardware utilizado, destacan el Raspberry Pi 3 Model B como dispositivo central, dos Arduino Megas con sus respectivos Ethernet Shields como gateway, y NodemCU como módulo remoto, utilizando DHT22 para las mediciones de temperatura y húmedad, así como relevadores de pulso para controlar los aires acondicionados. Se usaron varios protocolos de comunicación, tal como el UDP, utilizado para la comunicación entre el dispositivo central con los gateways, así como la comunicación entre los gateways y los módulos remotos. Modbus RTU, protocolo que utilizan los Arduinos Mega de los gateways para transferir información entre ellos; y el protocolo I2C, utilizado por un Arduino para poder leer y escribir sobre un RTC con el objetivo de mantener la hora actualizada. Los dispositivos fueron programados con diversos lenguajes, destacando PHP, HTML5, CSS3 y JavaScript, utilizados para la programación de la interfaz web. El lenguaje Python con el cual se desarrolló la programación para que el dispositivo central se pudiera comunicar con los gateways, y el lenguaje Arduino, usado para programar los Arduinos Mega y los NodemCU. Se probaron 2 prototipos, el primero de una sucursal y un equipo de aire acondicionado simulado con focos, con el objetivo de probar el sistema de control. El segundo de 3 sucursales y 4 equipos de aire acondicionado, cuya prueba duró 110 días, con el objetivo de ver la calidad de la comunicación entre los dispositivos, logrando arriba del 99.6% de paquetes UDP satisfactorios y arriba de 98.4% de paquetes enviados por serial con Modbus.
    • Optimización de rutas de ventas utilizando métodos de Clarke-Wright y de Barrido

      Smith Cornejo, Neale Ricardo; Lozano Gutiérrez, Gerardo Gabriel; Güemes Castorena, David; Trujillo Carrizales, Luis Uvaldo (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      Está tesis divulga el trabajo realizado en una empresa de alimentos, la cual se dedica a elaborar botanas saladas para consumo de la región y que presenta un indicador fuera de control lo que ocasiona pérdidas económicas anualmente. El indicador se denomina como “Clientes abandonados”, el cual es importante para la empresa porque aunado a las pérdidas económicas pierde participación en un mercado que es muy competitivo. Para este trabajo se evaluó uno de los centros de distribución foráneos ubicado en el estado de Querétaro ya que presenta el indicador de “Clientes Abandonados” en desviación. Se desarrollaron dos métodos de solución de problemas de ruteo y se hizo la comparativa de la situación actual encontrando diferencias muy significativas de la situación actual con uno de los métodos probados. Se pretende que este estudio realizado y con los resultados obtenidos la empresa de botanas saladas pueda poner en control su indicador desviado y que está metodología sirva para la optimización de las nuevas rutas.  
    • NetMovExt: a dynamic extensor

      Vargas-Rosales, César; Armenta Gastelum, Edson Jacobo; Fernández de las Heras, Leyre Azpilicueta; Martínez Herrera, Alberto Francisco (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      Nowadays, there is still an open field in network simulators dedicated to working VANETs. They have been introduced to add some networking characteristics by acting as adapters or extension between mobility tool and network module such as ASH, OVNIS, VEINS, VnetIntSim, TraN, GrooveSim. In this thesis, we propose a platform focused on VANETs atmosphere. This contemporary simulator works with two types of communication: Vehicular to Vehicular (V2V) in a multiple-hop scheme and Vehicular to Infrastructure to Vehicular (V2I) in a single-hop scheme. We have aimed our work to have a flexible architecture for networking side where other services such as modules can be added in parallel. In fact of that, we integrated a module with our own developed testing routing protocol based on geographical position. Additionally, we included a beta propagation module to show flexibility of structure. A customizable GUI was integrated for easy interaction with user
    • Study of heat transfer in tubular-panel and spray cooling systems applied to the electric arc furnace walls

      Rivera Solorio, Carlos Iván; Contreras-Serna, Josué; García Cuéllar, Alejandro Javier; López Salinas, José Luis (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      This project consists in a heat transfer study in the electric arc furnace (EAF) walls, focused in the tubular-panel and spray cooling systems for the EAF located at Ternium-Guerrero plant, in the northeastern region of Mexico. The tubular-panel system is the one currently used to keep the walls cooled, composed of a total of 14 tubular panels. More dangerous accidents in the EAF operation, are the water steam explosions, which occur due to water leaks in the piping system inside the furnace. Spray cooling is given from the outside of the EAF, reducing the possibility of water directly impacting molten steel. The main purpose of this research is to know the operational conditions of both systems, verifying if the spray cooling system could be as good as the tubular system for the removal of heat on walls, efficiency and keeping the walls at low temperatures. The following procedures were used to estimate the water flow distribution in the cooling systems and the heat transfer in the walls. Piping network configurations are proposed for both systems. Models that consider surface-energy balances between different layers of the EAF’s walls and the heat radiated onto the walls by the electric arc and the molten-slag surface are developed herein. Conventional correlations were used for determining the heat transfer coefficients inside the tubular panels (Internal convection) and alternate correlations for determining the heat transfer coefficients for the external convection (spray cooling). Additional scenarios were done trying to improve the operational conditions and heat removal of each system. Water flow regulation by valves in each panel in tubular system and jet nozzles are used instead of spray nozzles in the spray system to verify the effectiveness of the spray cooling. The study was conducted via a parametric analysis in which the principal factors governing the process—the arc coverage and slag-layer thickness adhering to the walls—were varied. The results of the tubular-panel system were compared with experimental measurements of the outlet water temperature in each panel, showing a good approximation; allowing us to predict the operational conditions of the furnace. For both systems the optimal operating condition of the EAF, is when the arc is completely covered and the maximal thickness of the slag-layer that can be reached is around to 4.5 cm, it does that energy losses to decrease significantly and to keep walls at low temperatures. The minimal temperature difference between the inlet and final flow is around to 3 K. The spray cooling system operates with a lower heat removal capacity and pressure than the tubular-panel, causing that inner wall surface temperature to be approximately 20 degrees higher than when using the tubular system for critical operating conditions. Under optimal operating conditions each nozzle removes approximately 8.5 kW of thermal power. It is concluded that each cooling system has different temperatures and heat-removal capacity, which are highly dependent on the water flow within them. It is proved that slag-layer thickness and arc-coverage factors significantly affect the safe operation of the EAF, as well as its energy efficiency. This is a semi-analytical study; the equations of models were obtained analytically, and an equation-solver program is necessary to treat the non-linear equations obtained. Relatively few computational resources are required for this method.
    • Case studies in electric arc furnace Off-gases transport and steam explosion onset

      García Cuéllar, Alejandro Javier; Contreras Serna, Jorge; Rivera Solorio, Carlos Iván; López Salinas, José Luis (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      Steel production in an EAF may pose a serious security risk in the event of water leaks into the molten steel, causing violent steam explosions. This thesis presents two important topics related to the Steel Making Industry. The first one is about the detection of water vapor (steam) inside the off-gas duct of an Electric Arc Furnace (EAF). And the Second one is about knowing the preconditions of melt fragmentation in a steam explosion. A way to detect the presence of large quantities of water inside the EAF is by monitoring its off-gas duct content of water vapor. Determining where to place a probe for water vapor detection inside the duct, is of the greatest importance as this might be the first warning for the appearance of a risk situation. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is carried out using ANSYS Fluent software to obtain the point with highest concentration of water vapor. Water vapor channeling is assumed in the inlet of the off-gas duct so that a worst-case scenario is presented.  Three-dimensional simulations were run with the inlet gas containing CO2, CO, H2O (steam), and air. The first three components enter through the duct while air enters through small gaps in the duct. Different combinations of the inlet position of CO2, CO and H2O were considered to estimate a pattern for the water vapor flow through the duct. The results show that if the steam enters in a channelized way, it will tend to continue in that path along the duct. The simulation results show the zones of the off-gas duct with a higher concentration of steam. These results can guide locating the gas probe and provide a better warning of a water leak. About the other topic, fragmentation of molten metal is an important process in steam explosions caused by melt-coolant interactions. This part of the research is dedicated to investigating how the fragmentation of the melt droplets occurs and melt jets formation in different mechanisms like a metal droplet falling in water or in a stratified water/liquid metal system. Also, an explanation of the most significant parameters in these processes is performed. 2-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are carried out using ANSYS Fluent software to study these phenomena.  The results show that the larger the pressure or density, the greater the melt jet length for a stratified system. And the larger velocity or density, the greater deformation for a melt droplet in a water pool. The formation of melt jets of Ciccarelli and Frost’s experiments is observed, and fragmentation of melt droplets was also observed during current simulations.
    • Characterization of arc extinction in direct current residential circuit breakers

      Viramontes Brown, Federico Ángel; Bautista Cruz, Julio César; Rivera Solorio, Carlos Iván; Gutiérrez Villanueva, Efrain; Suarez Guevara, José Carlos (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      Break the current in a direct current (DC) network is a challenging theme since the current does not exhibit a zero crossing point, making it difficult to interrupt. Regardless of the method, the physical effect of switching is the formation of an electric arc, causing high levels of temperature, strong magnetic fields, current of several tens of KA, added to mechanical stress and overpressure on the walls. Due to this reason, physical phenomena should be studied to determine a suitable design. This thesis starts by understanding the arc in alternating current (AC), then proceeds to DC. A theoretical description of the electric arc is outlined, based on plasma physics. The Magneto-Hydrodynamic (MHD) model is proposed, which allows modeling a plasma as an electric fluid, allowing coupling the equations of fluid mechanics and magnetic fields.