• Caracterización de emulsiones preparadas mediante un inversor de flujo helicoidal

      López Salinas, José Luis; de la Herrán-Zambada, Mariandrea; Rivera Solorio, Carlos Iván; García Cuéllar, Alejandro Javier (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05)
      In the present work the effect of two emulsifiers in colloidal dispersion (oil / water) was studied using different preparation techniques. The emulsifiers analyzed were hydrophilic silica particles and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Both emulsifiers were previously dispersed using an ultrasonic bath and ultrasonic tip as preparation technique to evaluate the effect in the colloidal dispersion. According to the particle size distribution of each emulsifier, it was found that the ultrasonic tip offers more stability on aqueous dispersion because of the measurements reproducibility. The concentration effects of the silica particles and sodium dodecyl sulfate were studied measuring oil-water glass contact angle and oil-water interfacial tension. Samples were prepared using an ultrasonic tip, a coiled flow inverter and helical pipe. Experimental results suggest that silica particle concentration does not influence the interfacial tension and the contact angle in the oil-water system. The results also show that the interaction between surfactant and silica particle is affected by the mixing conditions during the colloidal dispersion process. Emulsions prepared with the ultrasonic tip show a strong interaction between both emulsifiers surfactant and silica particles, on the other hand, the coiled flow inverter and the helical pipe used under the laminar flow conditions show moderate and almost equal interaction between both emulsifiers according to droplet size distribution measures.
    • Metodología de cálculo de las curvas de demanda de reserva para el mercado eléctrico mexicano

      Llamas Terrés, Armando; Perales-Martínez, Favio; Lezama-Lope, Uriel; Sánchez-Meléndez, David; Llamas-Terrés, Armando; Perales-Martínez, Favio; Lezama-Lope, Uriel (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-14)
      The energy reform to the Mexican electricity sector established the creation of a Wholesale Electricity Market (WEM) which seeks to optimize the production and supply of electric energy by minimizing costs and maximizing the social benefit of all market participants, taking care, at all times, of the reliability of the Electric Power System (EPS) A fundamental safety condition in an EPS is to maintain the equilibrium or constant balance between generation and demand, however, imbalances can occur as a consequence of forecast errors, forced outputs of generators, unexpected variations in demand and volatility in an unconventional generation such as solar and wind generation. These variations between generation and demand must be addressed quickly for which the Market Operator makes use of extra generation capacity known as Operating Reserve. The integration of renewable energies, photovoltaic and wind, besides being friendly to the environment, have multiple benefits in the electricity markets, one of them is the direct impact in reducing costs of generation of electric power, however, this type of technology has a high degree of uncertainty as it is directly dependent on weather conditions, making that the reliability of the EPS is compromised. Given a scenario of high penetration with these sources, adequate operational reserves must be available to deal with all possible operational scenarios. The WEM requires adequate price signals for the participants to indicate them when and where to invest in new generation capacity, also market mechanisms are required to dictate the correct price of the extra capacity as an operating reserve based on the benefit that it provides in the improvement of the reliability and safety of the EPS. The Reserve Demand Curves (RDC) are a dynamic mechanism for the evaluation of the adequate requirements of the reserve that the system requires due to they are obtained taking into account the different sources of uncertainty of the system that cause imbalances between generation and demand, besides they set an adequate price to the reserve based on its contribution in the improvement of the reliability of the system giving clear signals of the real condition of the system through its impact on the Local Marginal Price (LMP)  
    • Immunoaffinity aqueous two-phase systems to establish novel bioprocesses for the primary recovery of CD133+ stem cells

      Rito Palomares, Marco Antonio; Zavala Arcos, Judith; González González, Mirna Alejandra; Ornelas González, Alonso; Rito Palomares, Marco Antonio; Zavala Arcos, Judith; González González, Mirna Alejandra (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-25)
      A short processing time and efficient scale-up stem cell isolation bioprocess is essential to exploit the potential of these cells for the treatment of multiple chronic diseases. Various methodologies have been used for stem cell recovery, however, most of them present economical and/or time-consuming drawbacks. In this work, the characterization and optimization of immunoaffinity aqueous two-phase systems, a liquid-liquid based separation technology enhanced with the PEGylation of the antibody, was conducted with the aim of increasing the specificity for the recovery of CD133+ stem cells from human umbilical cord blood samples. The methodology consisted in evaluating the partitioning of the different PEGylated antibodies (amine, carboxyl, thiol, succinimidyl ester, methoxy PEG and maleimide) in three previously studied aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS); PEG-dextran (DEX), Ucon-DEX and Ficoll-DEX. Subsequently, an optimization step was accomplished to manipulate the partition behavior of the CD133/2-pure antibody to the desired phase in the selected systems by varying (increasing and decreasing) two parameters closely related with the partitioning of molecules in aqueous two-phase systems; tie-line length (TLL) and volume ratio (VR). Afterwards, the partitioning behavior of the six different PEGylated antibodies in the optimized systems was tested. According to the results, the PEGylation of the CD133/2-biotin antibody induced a favorable change with respect to the non-PEGylated one when Ucon-DEX system was used, fractionating it to both phases. Likewise, the optimization of the systems showed to be effective to induce a change in the partition preference of the antibody. The best results were obtained when Ucon-DEX or PEG-DEX systems with TLL 15% w/w or 20% w/w with VR 3 were combined. Finally, PEGylated antibodies were added to the selected optimized systems. Even though a shift in the fractionation preference of the PEGylated CD133/2-biotin antibody was achieved in the optimized systems, it was not the adequate partition to justify the evaluation of this immunoaffinity ATPS with human umbilical cord samples. Both PEGylation and optimization showed to be effective to induce a change in the partition preference of the antibody, however, further studies are required to find the optimal system composition that will fractionate 100% of the antibody to the contaminants opposite phase, making this system an ideal candidate to be tested for the selectivity of CD133+ stem cells.
    • Estudio del proceso de atemperación mediante CFD

      Huertas Cardozo, José Ignacio; Xicale de Aquino, Alfredo; Hernández Ramírez, Isaías; López Pulido, Amayraní; Huertas Cardozo, José Ignacio; Montesinos Castellanos, Alejandro; Xicale de Aquino, Alfredo; Hernández Hernández, Isaías (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-11)
      Actualmente, la búsqueda de una mayor generación eléctrica a partir de energías renovables ha posicionado al ciclo combinado como la tecnología capaza de realizar esta transición. Estos ciclos consisten en la integración de un ciclo Brayton por medio de una caldera de recuperación de vapor a un ciclo Rankine. Un componente fundamental para el correcto funcionamiento de las calderas de recuperación de vapor es el atemperador de vapor. Este sirve como sistema de control de la temperatura del vapor, por medio de la inyección de agua subenfriada. Se contruyeron simulaciones mediante CFD con la finalidad de observar a detalle lo que ocurre cuando el agua es inyectada a un flujo de vapor sobrecalentado, entender los fenómenos de transferencia de masa, energía y momentum es fundamental para el proceso de diseño de estos sistemas de atemperación. En base a los resultados se definieron zonas termodinámicas para asegurar una evapoación completa en base a la relación de flujos másicos. Se observó también, el comportamiento de ambas fases en el proceso de evaporación que se dividió en dos regiones, ahondando en el estudio de la segunda. Se obtuvo una ecuación que permite describir la evolución de la temperatura promedio de la mezcla y con la que se puede tener una estimación de la longitud mínima de evaporación. A su vez se estudió el efecto que tiene el tamaño de gota en el proceso y se concluyó que gotas más pequeñas permiten aumentar la transferencia de masa y calor entre las fases, lo que propicia una mejor evaporación en una distancia menor.  
    • Biogenic silica as a novel carrier to encapsulate isorhamnetin using a microfluidic device

      Parra-Saldivar, Roberto; Iqbal, Hafiz M. N.; Mancera-Andrade, Elena Ivonne; González-Valdez, José Guillermo (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-14)
      Diatoms have the peculiarity to synthesize amorphous silica around the cell wall. Frustules (empty silica shells) have the advantages of being biocompatible, biodegradable, nontoxic and rich with OH groups on the surface. Frustules have been used in diverse fields, but recently their application in the biomedical field has been investigated. Drug delivery systems (DDS) have been studied to improve the therapeutic effect of different drugs, especially hydrophobic drugs. Different encapsulation methodologies have been used to load the drug in a carrier such as drop-wise methodology or solvent evaporation. However, a reproducible methodology that reduces handling error must be explored. In the present work, a microfluidic device is used as a novel encapsulation technique for solid particles and hydrophobic drugs. A novel microfluidic device fabrication technique was used: ESCARGOT (Embedded SCAffold RemovinG Open Technology). Isorhamnetin was used as a model drug which has a hydrophobic nature. Three different concentrations were studied: 20, 60 and 100 μg/mL, and three different resident times in the device (0.4, 1 and 2 minutes). The highest encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and loading capacity (LC%) were 17.92% and 1.63% respectively. According to the statistical analysis, the optimum conditions to obtain a maximum (EE%) were 2 minutes and 20 μg/mL. The isorhamnetin release behavior was observed with a burst release in the first hour with 48.26%, while the total amount of drug was delivered in three hours. The feasibility of frustules as carriers and the microfluidic device as a mixer was successfully accessed. This methodology could be used as a standardization technique to obtain reproducible results. Further studies with frustule surface functionalization need to be performed to improve EE%.  
    • Análisis de estabilidad transitoria de sistemas eléctricos con una línea de transmisión de corriente directa basada en convertidores de fuente de voltaje

      Llamas Terrés, Armando Rafael; Lara Jiménez, Mia Mitzi; Viramontes Brown, Federico Angel; Guerrero Garza, Juan Jose (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      Hasta el presente, en México aún no existen líneas de Transmisión en Corriente Directa (HVDC), pero ya se tiene contemplado para el 2024 que estén en servicio varios proyectos de líneas de transmisión en HVDC en la red eléctrica mexicana. Las aplicaciones principales de los sistemas HVDC son la transmisión de altas cantidades de energía por largas distancias, interconexión de sistemas asíncronos y enlaces por cable submarino y/o subterráneo. Debido al creciente desarrollo de los Convertidores de Fuente de Voltaje (VSC) para HVDC, los cuales tienen mayor capacidad de control de potencia activa y reactiva, se abre la posibilidad de obtener beneficios adicionales tales como la mejora de la estabilidad transitoria del sistema CA al cual está conectado. El objetivo de este trabajo es demostrar el beneficio en la estabilidad transitoria de los sistemas eléctricos que es capaz de proporcionar un enlace de transmisión en Corriente Directa basado en VSC, como complemento a la aplicación principal de dicho enlace HVDC. Se resumen las características de la tecnología HVDC basada en VSC y sus posibles aplicaciones en las obras de transmisión propuestas por SENER en el Programa de Desarrollo del Sistema Eléctrico Nacional (PRODESEN) 2017-2031. En este trabajo se presentan casos de estudio de estabilidad transitoria en dos sistemas eléctricos ficticios con una línea de Transmisión en CD basada en VSC, con el fin de ilustrar los beneficios que los sistemas HVDC aportan a los sistemas eléctricos como adición a la aplicación principal del enlace HVDC. La simulación de los casos de estudio se realizó con la herramienta PSS/E®, propiedad de SIEMENS PTI™. El modelo de línea HVDC-VSC utilizado es propiedad de la compañía ABB™, el cual está basado en su tecnología denominada HVDC Light®. De acuerdo con la revisión bibliográfica y con los resultados obtenidos en las simulaciones realizadas, se puede confirmar que los sistemas HVDC-VSC, como beneficio adicional a su aplicación principal, influyen de manera positiva a los sistemas eléctricos mejorando su estabilidad transitoria. El potencial de mejora de la estabilidad transitoria con la modulación de la potencia activa mediante controladores suplementarios existe desde los sistemas HVDC convencionales, pero con los VSC la respuesta es mucho más rápida, además de que se cuenta con la posibilidad de la modulación de potencia reactiva, capacidad con la que no cuenta la tecnología convencional de HVDC. La funcionalidad de mejora de la estabilidad transitoria mediante la modulación de potencia activa podría ser una buena opción para los proyectos a futuro que se tienen en México con HVDC, en especial en los sistemas de Corriente Directa basados en VSC tales como la Interconexión de Baja California al SIN y la Interconexión de BSC al SIN.
    • Genetic transformation of Artemia franciscana by electroporation

      Aguilar-Yañez Jose Manuel; Licona-Cassani, Cuautemoc; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Alberto Constantino; Brunck, Marion E.G. (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-25)
      Artemia franciscana also known as brine shrimp, and sea monkey is a halophilic crustacean used in aquaculture as living food and had a little role in research as toxicological model. Despite its easy handling and availability, Artemia barely has genetic engineering. The objective of this work is to develop a protocol for the genetic transformation of Artemia franciscana using electroporation and diapause cysts. Decapsulated cysts were electroporated with exponential decay voltage and square wave pulse, the efficiency was calculated. The effect of the plasmid DNA used, and the voltage were evaluated. Square wave pulse shows a better efficiency compared to the exponential. The concentration of DNA has no effect on the efficiency of transfection. Voltage at one level (1000 V·cm-1) had the best efficiency of transfection, but also the worst hatching. With protocol and the information generated, it will be possible to evaluate genetic regulatory elements to the future develop of a tool box for genetic manipulation.
    • “Determination of interaction properties between PEGylated proteins and a modified resin by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) and FTIR”

      Aguilar-Jiménez, Oscar Alejandro; Magaña, Paulyna; Gonzalez-Valdez, José Guillermo; Ramos de la Peña, Ana Mayela (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-25)
      PEGylated proteins are an increasing important class of therapeutic drugs due to their improved pharmacokinetic characteristics and solubility over their corresponding native forms. PEGylation is the covalent attachment of one or more polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules to a protein. Despite the many advantages of PEGylated drugs, one of the major challenges is the purification step after the chemical reaction. The main purpose of this project is to determine the nature of chemical interactions between a modified resin with PEG 5000 g/mol and PEGylated proteins that results in a previously demonstrated ability of such resins for the resolution of PEGylated proteins. A chromatographical separation of PEGylated proteins was additionally demonstrated for lysozyme using the modified resin Sepharose 6B-PEG5000 previously reported for PEGylated RNase A. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy provided insight of the resin modification. The interaction thermodynamics associated with PEGylated proteins in hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) with modified resin was carried out in with an ITC (Isothermal Titration Calorimetry) analysis. The specific enthalpy (∆G) was found to be exothermic for both proteins in potassium phosphate buffer with 1.5 M ammonium sulfate at 25ºC. MonoPEGylated proteins showed large negative entropy (-T∆S) values, related to the enhanced hydrophobic interaction between PEG5000 molecules from the resin and PEGylated protein forms. In addition, binding constants (K) of PEGylated proteins to modified resin were slightly higher compared to unmodified proteins.
    • Environmental impact of conventional manufacturing and additive manufacturing in lifecycle of turbine blade

      Rodríguez González, Ciro Ángel; Siller Carrillo, Héctor Rafael; Vila Pastor, Carlos; Torres Carrillo, Sharon Andrea; Vega, Yadira (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-16)
      The exponential growth of additive manufacturing technologies is not only improving production processes to achieve functional requirements for products, but it could also help to minimize environmental impacts. In order to align a green product lifecycle management vision, companies need to implement emerging technologies and define a set of metrics that measure the benefits of the change. Each product requires a particular and optimized manufacturing process plan, and each production phase must achieve a significant reduction of critical metrics for the whole Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This study provides a comprehensive and comparative LCA of two manufacturing process plans for the case study of an aircraft engine turbine blade. The first process consists of a combination of Investment Casting and Precision Machining and the second consists in the replacement of Investment casting by Selective Laser Melting as an emergent process for near net shape fabrication. The collected data for the comparison includes Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidification Potential (AP), Ozone layer Depletion Potential (ODP), Human Toxicity Potential (HTP), Ecotoxicity and Abiotic Depletion Potential (ADP).
    • Aprovechamiento de calor de gases de combustión en una planta acerera

      Sánchez Cisneros, Gilberto; Lozano García, Francisco José; Ugalde Barrales, Francisco Javier; Álvarez Guerra, Alejandro Juan (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-14)
      Los consumos energéticos en la industria del acero son diversos y representan un porcentaje significativo en el costo final del producto. México se encuentra en una transición energética efecto de los últimos cambios políticos y económicos de la nación. Tal transición abarca áreas como eficiencia energética y el uso de combustibles fósiles. Los procesos de una planta acerera generan enormes cantidades de gases de combustión desde sus chimeneas en equipos que queman gas natural. Se plantea realizar análisis técnico y económico comparativo de diferentes tecnologías de recuperación de calor comerciales. La meta del presente proyecto es analizar un caso real de aprovechamiento de calor residual de los gases de combustión proveniente de una chimenea en una planta acerera local, aplicando una tecnología que recupere el contenido energético no aprovechado a través de estos efluentes, para satisfacer una necesidad ya existente en la planta. La comparación técnica, producto del análisis de un equipo calentador, muestra que un ciclo Rankine orgánico básico entregaría 19kW de energía, una enfriadora de absorción de una etapa con COP=0.75 tendría una carga de o 111.7 TR (392kW); un generador de vapor suministraría 400 kg/s de vapor saturado a 5.5 kg/cm^2 y un precalentador de aire elevaría la temperatura del aire de combustión a 70°C generando un ahorro de 25 Nm3 de gas natural. En el análisis económico se utilizan métricas de costos equivalentes cuyos resultados entregan menores costos para las tecnologías de precalentamiento de aire y generación de vapor; y con el desarrollo de los estados de pérdidas y ganancias se demuestra que las tecnologías con mayor rentabilidad son la refrigeración por absorción con enfriadora de gases directos, y el precalentamiento de aire de combustión. Estas dos tecnologías cumplen con necesidades del área donde se encuentra el equipo calentador, generando ahorros y fomentando la eficiencia energética en la planta; de modo que queda a criterio de los directivos la elección de la tecnología a implementar. Se plantea como trabajo futuro que se validen estas tecnologías ante el mercado de bonos de carbono próximo a iniciar en México para obtener mayor rentabilidad en las tecnologías estudiadas.
    • Interfaces adaptativas para ambientes de aprendizaje

      Ramírez Echavarría, Diego; DIEGO RAMíREZ ECHAVARRíA
    • Marco conceptual unificado para el diseño de productos biomédicos en empresas

      Rodríguez Sierra, Carlos Alfonso; CARLOS ALFONSO RODRíGUEZ SIERRA
    • Dispersión de contaminantes en el medio marino

      Hoil Gamboa, Alejandro; ALEJANDRO HOIL GAMBOA
    • Problema de "reducción de arrendamiento" para abastecimiento y reemplazo de equipo

      Arredondo Álvarez, Jorge Alberto; JORGE ALBERTO ARREDONDO ÁLVAREZ