• Process Intensification of antisolvent crystallization using a coiled flow inverter

      Álvarez Guerra, Alejandro Juan; Benítez Chapa, Andrea Georgina; López Guajardo, Enrique Alfonso; Montesinos Castellanos, Alejandro (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      The current scenario of the pharmaceutical industry, where final product quality has a fundamental priority, justifies the need for process intensification in order to shift from inefficient conventional batch production to continuous production methods. An alternative to reducing energy consumption in the purification step of pharmaceutical products is antisolvent continuous crystallization, a separation and purification technique that aims to produce particles of controlled size and purity by controlling the antisolvent addition rate, on which crystal birth and growth rates depend. This work experimentally studies the antisolvent continuous crystallization process of flufenamic acid, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), using the coiled flow inverter (CFI) as a novel crystallization device. Two strategies were studied as means to control crystal size distribution in the CFI technology: multistage antisolvent addition and a varied number of the reactor’s 90-degree bends. Experimental results show that mean crystal size of the studied API, increased with an increasing number of antisolvent addition points, thus suggesting a growth dominated process. On the other hand, mean crystal size decreased as the number of 90-degree bends increased, suggesting a nucleation dominated process. A narrower crystal size distribution (CSD) was also observed with an increased number of 90-degree bends. When compared to the CFI, mean crystal size and coefficient of variation were, in average, 1.8 and 3.5 times larger for the Kenics type crystallizer, respectively. This can be attributed to the high supersaturation induced by the effective mixing. Using the Population Balance Equation, as a mathematical model to describe the plug flow crystallization, crystal mass population density was calculated and compared with the obtained experimental data. High regression coefficients were obtained (0.96-0.99), which indicate that near plug flow behavior was achieved. Consequently, undesired crystallization process phenomena such as agglomeration, dissolution and breakage were successfully avoided, as they can lead to operational problems and a broad CSD. Process intensification (PI) was measured considering mean crystal size (µm) and coefficient of variation (CV) as product quality indicators. On the other hand, crystallization and pre-expansion temperatures, as well as extraction pressure, were considered as both energy savings and operational safety indicators. Six crystallizers of flufenamic acid were compared (batch, reactor without static mixers, Kenics type crystallizer, Kenics optimized, helical coil and RESS) to a CFI with three 90-degree bends. The CFI was the most intensified technology of all six, with IFtotal ranging from 2 (helical coil) to 392 (RESS).  For this reason, it can be concluded that the main objective of this thesis, which was to intensify antisolvent crystallization processes, was achieved.   
    • NetMovExt: a dynamic extensor

      Vargas-Rosales, César; Armenta Gastelum, Edson Jacobo; Fernández de las Heras, Leyre Azpilicueta; Martínez Herrera, Alberto Francisco (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      Nowadays, there is still an open field in network simulators dedicated to working VANETs. They have been introduced to add some networking characteristics by acting as adapters or extension between mobility tool and network module such as ASH, OVNIS, VEINS, VnetIntSim, TraN, GrooveSim. In this thesis, we propose a platform focused on VANETs atmosphere. This contemporary simulator works with two types of communication: Vehicular to Vehicular (V2V) in a multiple-hop scheme and Vehicular to Infrastructure to Vehicular (V2I) in a single-hop scheme. We have aimed our work to have a flexible architecture for networking side where other services such as modules can be added in parallel. In fact of that, we integrated a module with our own developed testing routing protocol based on geographical position. Additionally, we included a beta propagation module to show flexibility of structure. A customizable GUI was integrated for easy interaction with user
    • Optimización de rutas de ventas utilizando métodos de Clarke-Wright y de Barrido

      Smith Cornejo, Neale Ricardo; Lozano Gutiérrez, Gerardo Gabriel; Güemes Castorena, David; Trujillo Carrizales, Luis Uvaldo (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      Está tesis divulga el trabajo realizado en una empresa de alimentos, la cual se dedica a elaborar botanas saladas para consumo de la región y que presenta un indicador fuera de control lo que ocasiona pérdidas económicas anualmente. El indicador se denomina como “Clientes abandonados”, el cual es importante para la empresa porque aunado a las pérdidas económicas pierde participación en un mercado que es muy competitivo. Para este trabajo se evaluó uno de los centros de distribución foráneos ubicado en el estado de Querétaro ya que presenta el indicador de “Clientes Abandonados” en desviación. Se desarrollaron dos métodos de solución de problemas de ruteo y se hizo la comparativa de la situación actual encontrando diferencias muy significativas de la situación actual con uno de los métodos probados. Se pretende que este estudio realizado y con los resultados obtenidos la empresa de botanas saladas pueda poner en control su indicador desviado y que está metodología sirva para la optimización de las nuevas rutas.  
    • Micro machinability of net shapes of Selective Laser Melting of Ti-6Al-4V for minimum material removal using ball end mill

      Vázquez Lepe, Elisa Virginia; García López, Erika; Celis Renata, Pavel; Rodríguez González, Ciro Ángel; Sandoval Robles, Jesús A. (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      Miniaturization of medical devices is playing an important role in the manufacture industry. New drug delivery systems are being studied and developed, therefore materials to produce these devices must be investigated extensively. The objective of this work is to experimentally investigate and compare the machinability of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy produced via Selective laser melting (SLM) against the conventional machining method. 18 patches of 09 needles each were fabricated and machined with different cutting feeds (120,150 and 180mm/min) with aid of a minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) system. Machinability was examined in terms of cutting forces, tool wear, surface roughness and geometrical dimensions. Each cutting feed was tested by fabricating 3 patches from solid blocks of titanium with square tools of .8mm. Finish pass was performed with a .2mm micro ball end mill with a constant spiral toolpath. Comparison was performed by fabricating four patches with SLM with an excess material of 150μm and machined with the same previous parameters. 3D images obtained by optical microscope reveal that the main force applied in the finishing of needles is the Z axis and cutting forces were higher when machining SLM patches. Tool calibration is the main factor to obtain high precision in geometrical dimensions due to the variation in length because of thermal expansion. Surface roughness for all tests were below 1μm with best results when cutting feed is set at 120mm/min, reduction in edge radius for ball end mills affected negatively the surface roughness. An economic comparison was performed and showed that the SLM combined with SM process has clear advantage over subtractive manufacture alone.
    • Operation of a photovoltaic system in the mexican electricity market

      Viramontes Brown, Federico Ángel; Hernández Ramírez, José Martín; Gutiérrez Andrews, Carlos Alberto; Llamas Terrés, Armando Rafael; Gutiérrez Villanueva, Efrain (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      Taking as a study case a Photovoltaic (PV) System installed in the Development and Innovation Center of Schneider Electric a whole study was realized. The main objective was to analyze the operation of a PV system in the Mexican Electricity Market and develop tools that can make easier to evaluate the performance of the installation. It produces less than 0.5 MW, in the current regulation is consider as Distributed Generation (DG). This kind of Power Plants (PP) can be interconnected to the grid and the owner has three contract options: Net Metering, Net Billing and Total Sale of Energy. In this case the better is Net Metering because the building consumes all the energy produced, but by having a contract with a supplier this field could earn Clean Energy Certificates (CEL). Three tools were developed to evaluate the economic and technical performance. The first tool is to graph the downloaded data acquired by the monitoring system. That daily data cannot be graph as detailed by the inverter’s provided interface after a day as if the user downloads the information. The second tool is required to find the greatest values of Irradiance, Temperature or Power in a month. When this tool is feed with the files of the month, each file will be paste in a new Excel workbook’s sheet, but in the first sheet the user, has a recapitulation per day of the greatest values. With all this ordered information could be prepare a generation profile of the area, and that stats can be used in future investment decision and forecasting. Finally, the third tool is dedicated to calculated financial indicators such as Payback and IRR. Some scenarios were studied and after applying some stimulus offered by the government that are reflected in the taxes payment, better results were obtained. With this tool is possible run scenarios and evaluate the profitability of new investments.
    • Factores clave para el fortalecimiento de la procuración de donativos en un Banco de Alimentos

      Loera Hernández, Imelda de Jesús; Rivera Campa, Miguel Ángel; Caffarel Rodríguez, Graciela; García Reyes, Heriberto (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      La profesionalización es un concepto indispensable para las organizaciones de la sociedad civil, ya que el desarrollo de nuevas habilidades asegura que sus miembros se encuentren preparados para cumplir con el objeto social de generar un cambio tangible en la comunidad.  En el caso particular de los Bancos de Alimentos en México, las organizaciones se dan la tarea de fortalecer sus procesos para adoptar una cultura de calidad, con el fin de elevar su nivel de madurez para promover la seguridad alimentaria entre los sectores sociales más vulnerables del país. Por tal motivo, la presente tesis propone ciertos factores clave que favorezcan la elevación del nivel de desempeño en la institución, en materia de procuración de donativos en especie, con el fin de contribuir a su fortalecimiento institucional por medio de la mejora continua de sus procesos. Para proponer dichos factores, es necesario la comparación de modelos de procuración al analizar sus similitudes y establecer conceptos importantes para que los miembros de la institución puedan realizar sus actividades de forma eficiente. Todo esto con el fin de estandarizar el proceso de procuración de donativos en especie para que los bancos afiliados a la Asociación Mexicana de Bancos de Alimentos puedan elevar su nivel de madurez y desarrollo institucional.
    • Análisis de estabilidad transitoria de sistemas eléctricos con una línea de transmisión de corriente directa basada en convertidores de fuente de voltaje

      Llamas Terrés, Armando Rafael; Lara Jiménez, Mia Mitzi; Viramontes Brown, Federico Angel; Guerrero Garza, Juan Jose (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      Hasta el presente, en México aún no existen líneas de Transmisión en Corriente Directa (HVDC), pero ya se tiene contemplado para el 2024 que estén en servicio varios proyectos de líneas de transmisión en HVDC en la red eléctrica mexicana. Las aplicaciones principales de los sistemas HVDC son la transmisión de altas cantidades de energía por largas distancias, interconexión de sistemas asíncronos y enlaces por cable submarino y/o subterráneo. Debido al creciente desarrollo de los Convertidores de Fuente de Voltaje (VSC) para HVDC, los cuales tienen mayor capacidad de control de potencia activa y reactiva, se abre la posibilidad de obtener beneficios adicionales tales como la mejora de la estabilidad transitoria del sistema CA al cual está conectado. El objetivo de este trabajo es demostrar el beneficio en la estabilidad transitoria de los sistemas eléctricos que es capaz de proporcionar un enlace de transmisión en Corriente Directa basado en VSC, como complemento a la aplicación principal de dicho enlace HVDC. Se resumen las características de la tecnología HVDC basada en VSC y sus posibles aplicaciones en las obras de transmisión propuestas por SENER en el Programa de Desarrollo del Sistema Eléctrico Nacional (PRODESEN) 2017-2031. En este trabajo se presentan casos de estudio de estabilidad transitoria en dos sistemas eléctricos ficticios con una línea de Transmisión en CD basada en VSC, con el fin de ilustrar los beneficios que los sistemas HVDC aportan a los sistemas eléctricos como adición a la aplicación principal del enlace HVDC. La simulación de los casos de estudio se realizó con la herramienta PSS/E®, propiedad de SIEMENS PTI™. El modelo de línea HVDC-VSC utilizado es propiedad de la compañía ABB™, el cual está basado en su tecnología denominada HVDC Light®. De acuerdo con la revisión bibliográfica y con los resultados obtenidos en las simulaciones realizadas, se puede confirmar que los sistemas HVDC-VSC, como beneficio adicional a su aplicación principal, influyen de manera positiva a los sistemas eléctricos mejorando su estabilidad transitoria. El potencial de mejora de la estabilidad transitoria con la modulación de la potencia activa mediante controladores suplementarios existe desde los sistemas HVDC convencionales, pero con los VSC la respuesta es mucho más rápida, además de que se cuenta con la posibilidad de la modulación de potencia reactiva, capacidad con la que no cuenta la tecnología convencional de HVDC. La funcionalidad de mejora de la estabilidad transitoria mediante la modulación de potencia activa podría ser una buena opción para los proyectos a futuro que se tienen en México con HVDC, en especial en los sistemas de Corriente Directa basados en VSC tales como la Interconexión de Baja California al SIN y la Interconexión de BSC al SIN.
    • Characterization of arc extinction in direct current residential circuit breakers

      Viramontes Brown, Federico Ángel; Bautista Cruz, Julio César; Rivera Solorio, Carlos Iván; Gutiérrez Villanueva, Efrain; Suarez Guevara, José Carlos (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      Break the current in a direct current (DC) network is a challenging theme since the current does not exhibit a zero crossing point, making it difficult to interrupt. Regardless of the method, the physical effect of switching is the formation of an electric arc, causing high levels of temperature, strong magnetic fields, current of several tens of KA, added to mechanical stress and overpressure on the walls. Due to this reason, physical phenomena should be studied to determine a suitable design. This thesis starts by understanding the arc in alternating current (AC), then proceeds to DC. A theoretical description of the electric arc is outlined, based on plasma physics. The Magneto-Hydrodynamic (MHD) model is proposed, which allows modeling a plasma as an electric fluid, allowing coupling the equations of fluid mechanics and magnetic fields.
    • Secuenciamiento y control óptimo de reactores multiproducto bajo condiciones de incertidumbre en el modelo matemático

      Flores Tlacuahuac, Antonio; Lozano Guevara, Azarael Alejandra; Santibañez Aguilar, José Ezequiel; Fuentes Cortés, Luis Fabián (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      Las industrias con procesos multiproducto suelen generar productos que no cumplen con los requerimientos del mercado, debido a los cambios que se experimentan entre productos y al suponer que los valores del proceso no contienen errores. A través de la formulación presentada en este trabajo, se pretende mostrar una manera eficiente de resolver problemas de optimización que integren secuenciamiento y control de la producción en presencia de incertidumbre en el modelo matemático, la cual es evaluada con el uso de escenarios propuestos para el rango de valores que puede tomar el parámetro incierto; cada escenario está asociado con un factor de peso fraccional. La función objetivo está en términos económicos, y se busca maximizar el ingreso económico, simultáneamente reduciendo la generación de producto fuera de especificación a través de una buena selección de secuenciamiento entre productos. Se plantea un sistema de ecuaciones MIDO (Mixed-Integer Dynamic Optimization) debido al uso de ecuaciones diferenciales para describir el modelo matemático del reactor, después a través de una técnica de discretización en puntos de colocación dentro de elementos finitos, el sistema se vuelve un MINLP (Mixed-Integer No Lineal Problem), que puede ser resuelto con GAMS. Después se agrega un Control Predictivo de Modelo (MPC) para obtener las variables de control con respuestas de tipo pulso, finalmente se evalúa el sistema al aplicar las acciones de control al modelo en estado determinístico suponiendo los peores escenarios, en este caso, los extremos del rango de valores del parámetro incierto, y obteniendo el error porcentual entre las variables de estado y los valores deseados.
    • Effect of electromagnetic fields in the process of arc extinction in molded case circuit breakers

      Viramontes Brown, Federico Ángel; Gutiérrez Villanueva, Efraín; Chávez Campos, David Alejandro; Gutiérrez Villanueva, Efrain; Valerio Lejia, José de Jesús (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      The new computational tools developed in the last decade are a great contribution to solve complex problems related to the design of circuit breakers. In the past, the experimental research was almost the unique way to improve this kind of technology, a lot of tests were made at laboratories and it was so expensive. Finite Element Analysis made possible to simulate scenarios and develop new technology supporting experimental test and decreasing the number of experimental essays. This thesis proposes the analysis of a module of arc extinction of a Molded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB) by using Finite Element Method (FEM) software. In this work, the Lorentz force that moves the arc to the arc chutes and lets the elimination of the electric arc is calculated and a model is proposed that determines the contribution of each element of the MCCB to increase or align this magnetic force at the arc. The characteristics of the arc chute are reviewed too, the features analyzed were: the shape of plates, the material used in their fabrication, the influence of the number of plates in the Lorentz forces, and the variation of the distance between plates. The contribution to the Lorentz forces at the arc of the main elements of the module of arc extinction is shown in this work. It is also determined the configurations that allow a better design in the construction of arc chutes. As results, we obtain that the main purpose of the cheeks in the MCCB arc module extinction is to align the magnetic field in the arc. All other steel components increase the Lorentz force in it, accelerating the process of extinction. The best material to increase the magnetic forces is the AFK1 due to its high level of magnetic saturation but this material is so expensive. As a conclusion of this work, we obtain a methodology to design and calculate the effects of the magnetic fields in the arc produced in the chamber extinction of the MCCB.
    • Design and Implementation of a UAV-based Platform for Air Pollution Monitoring and Source Identification

      Garza Castañón, Luis Eduardo; Yungaicela Naula, Noé Marcelo; Ponce Cuspinera, Luis; Vargas Martínez, Adriana (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      This document presents the thesis proposal for obtaining the Master of Science in Intelligent Systems. Technology, industry and government forecasts coincide that the planet will withstand a maximum of 50 years at the rate of current air pollution. Air pollution has reached critical levels causing major impacts on health and economy across the globe. Environmental monitoring and control agencies, as well as industries, require a reliable and cost-effective tool that is easy to deploy where required to assess contamination levels, and on that basis, take the necessary actions. Current measurement methods using pressurized balloons, satellite imagery, or earth stations result in considerable investment, as well as providing low spatial and temporal resolution. There are also systems for measuring air pollution using Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV), which are financed by large government institutions or international organizations whose budget and resources allow costly implementations. Other related works are limited to the capture of atmospheric data using the UAVs and offline analysis. This work presents the design and implementation of an open-source UAV-based platform for measuring atmospheric pollutants and an algorithm for the localization of the air pollutant sources with the use of a UAV and in-line processing of the pollutants data. The development of the UAV-based platform includes: the UAV mounting and characterization and the control system to guide the navigation of the vehicle, the appropriate sensors selection and integration to the UAV, the data transmission from the sensors onboard the UAV to the ground station, and the implementation of the user interface which is based on a web design. The algorithm for the air pollutant source localization is based on a metaheuristic component, to follow the increasing gradient of the pollutant concentration, and complemented with a probabilistic component to concentrate the searching to the most promising areas in the targeted environment. The results of this work are: Outdoors experiments of the UAV-based platform for the air pollutant monitoring and indoor experiments to validate the algorithm for the source localization. The results show effectiveness and robustness of the UAV-based platform and of the algorithm for the source identification.
    • Study of heat transfer in tubular-panel and spray cooling systems applied to the electric arc furnace walls

      Rivera Solorio, Carlos Iván; Contreras-Serna, Josué; García Cuéllar, Alejandro Javier; López Salinas, José Luis (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      This project consists in a heat transfer study in the electric arc furnace (EAF) walls, focused in the tubular-panel and spray cooling systems for the EAF located at Ternium-Guerrero plant, in the northeastern region of Mexico. The tubular-panel system is the one currently used to keep the walls cooled, composed of a total of 14 tubular panels. More dangerous accidents in the EAF operation, are the water steam explosions, which occur due to water leaks in the piping system inside the furnace. Spray cooling is given from the outside of the EAF, reducing the possibility of water directly impacting molten steel. The main purpose of this research is to know the operational conditions of both systems, verifying if the spray cooling system could be as good as the tubular system for the removal of heat on walls, efficiency and keeping the walls at low temperatures. The following procedures were used to estimate the water flow distribution in the cooling systems and the heat transfer in the walls. Piping network configurations are proposed for both systems. Models that consider surface-energy balances between different layers of the EAF’s walls and the heat radiated onto the walls by the electric arc and the molten-slag surface are developed herein. Conventional correlations were used for determining the heat transfer coefficients inside the tubular panels (Internal convection) and alternate correlations for determining the heat transfer coefficients for the external convection (spray cooling). Additional scenarios were done trying to improve the operational conditions and heat removal of each system. Water flow regulation by valves in each panel in tubular system and jet nozzles are used instead of spray nozzles in the spray system to verify the effectiveness of the spray cooling. The study was conducted via a parametric analysis in which the principal factors governing the process—the arc coverage and slag-layer thickness adhering to the walls—were varied. The results of the tubular-panel system were compared with experimental measurements of the outlet water temperature in each panel, showing a good approximation; allowing us to predict the operational conditions of the furnace. For both systems the optimal operating condition of the EAF, is when the arc is completely covered and the maximal thickness of the slag-layer that can be reached is around to 4.5 cm, it does that energy losses to decrease significantly and to keep walls at low temperatures. The minimal temperature difference between the inlet and final flow is around to 3 K. The spray cooling system operates with a lower heat removal capacity and pressure than the tubular-panel, causing that inner wall surface temperature to be approximately 20 degrees higher than when using the tubular system for critical operating conditions. Under optimal operating conditions each nozzle removes approximately 8.5 kW of thermal power. It is concluded that each cooling system has different temperatures and heat-removal capacity, which are highly dependent on the water flow within them. It is proved that slag-layer thickness and arc-coverage factors significantly affect the safe operation of the EAF, as well as its energy efficiency. This is a semi-analytical study; the equations of models were obtained analytically, and an equation-solver program is necessary to treat the non-linear equations obtained. Relatively few computational resources are required for this method.
    • Case studies in electric arc furnace Off-gases transport and steam explosion onset

      García Cuéllar, Alejandro Javier; Contreras Serna, Jorge; Rivera Solorio, Carlos Iván; López Salinas, José Luis (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-15)
      Steel production in an EAF may pose a serious security risk in the event of water leaks into the molten steel, causing violent steam explosions. This thesis presents two important topics related to the Steel Making Industry. The first one is about the detection of water vapor (steam) inside the off-gas duct of an Electric Arc Furnace (EAF). And the Second one is about knowing the preconditions of melt fragmentation in a steam explosion. A way to detect the presence of large quantities of water inside the EAF is by monitoring its off-gas duct content of water vapor. Determining where to place a probe for water vapor detection inside the duct, is of the greatest importance as this might be the first warning for the appearance of a risk situation. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is carried out using ANSYS Fluent software to obtain the point with highest concentration of water vapor. Water vapor channeling is assumed in the inlet of the off-gas duct so that a worst-case scenario is presented.  Three-dimensional simulations were run with the inlet gas containing CO2, CO, H2O (steam), and air. The first three components enter through the duct while air enters through small gaps in the duct. Different combinations of the inlet position of CO2, CO and H2O were considered to estimate a pattern for the water vapor flow through the duct. The results show that if the steam enters in a channelized way, it will tend to continue in that path along the duct. The simulation results show the zones of the off-gas duct with a higher concentration of steam. These results can guide locating the gas probe and provide a better warning of a water leak. About the other topic, fragmentation of molten metal is an important process in steam explosions caused by melt-coolant interactions. This part of the research is dedicated to investigating how the fragmentation of the melt droplets occurs and melt jets formation in different mechanisms like a metal droplet falling in water or in a stratified water/liquid metal system. Also, an explanation of the most significant parameters in these processes is performed. 2-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are carried out using ANSYS Fluent software to study these phenomena.  The results show that the larger the pressure or density, the greater the melt jet length for a stratified system. And the larger velocity or density, the greater deformation for a melt droplet in a water pool. The formation of melt jets of Ciccarelli and Frost’s experiments is observed, and fragmentation of melt droplets was also observed during current simulations.
    • New Generation of 3D printed electrospray sources for microencapsulation in biomedical applications

      Zúñiga, Alex Elías; Olivera Trejo, Daniel; Benjamin de Jesus, Benjamín Evani; Martínez Romero, Oscar; García López, Erika (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-14)
      Additive manufacturing by Digital Light Processor stereolithography (DLP-SLA) has shown a great potential to create high-density microfluidic devices due to it offers high resolution and relatively low-cost. In this work, the fabrication of 3D printed coaxial electrospray sources with a high density of emitters are reported by using DLP-SLA technology. The 3D printed electrospray sources have also proven to work correctly as a source of microencapsulation. To accomplish the objectives of the study, it was addressed in three sections primarily. First, the influence of the involved parameters on the final properties of printed microchannels was evaluated by the analysis and characterization of this promising additive manufacturing technology. Second, based on its maximum printing capabilities, multiplexed electrospray sources were designed. To manufacture suitable channels with diameters up to 160 µm, it was key to establish the smallest dimensions of the new devices, which were successfully printed with 41 and 57 coaxial emitters respectively. Finally, Vitamin D and alginate hydrogel were used to produce core-shell microparticles as an initial exploration in the encapsulation of biomedical substances via coaxial electrospraying. The accurate encapsulation was dependent on the flow rate, applied voltages, and mainly on the concentration of alginate solution.
    • Desarrollo de un programa computacional para el análisis termoeconómico de sistemas de cogeneración

      Montesinos Castellanos, Alejandro; Hernández-Zamudio, Grecia; Viramontes Brown, Federico Ángel; Montesinos Castellanos, Alejandro; Llamas Terrés, Armando Rafael (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-14)
      A partir de la aprobación de la Reforma Energética, el papel que desempeña el sector de energía en el desarrollo tecnológico, económico y social de México ha cambiado y continuará en constante transformación. Un punto importante de esta transformación deberá hacer frente a la creciente demanda y consumo energético. Dentro de las alternativas de solución se encuentra la cogeneración, proceso que utiliza eficientemente los combustibles empleados al permitir la producción de dos tipos de energía a partir de una misma fuente primaria. El tipo de motor primario que se utilice determinará la cantidad de energía residual disponible que pueda ser utilizada para la producción térmica. En la actualidad, existen programas que permiten la evaluación técnica o económica de sistemas energéticos. No obstante, estos programas suelen no estar hechos en función de las necesidades específicas de los usuarios, además de que presentan un alto costo y nivel de complejidad. Por ello, se plantea como problema la necesidad de un instrumento que realice un rápido análisis técnico y económico de sistemas de cogeneración y que sea accesible a usuarios específicos. El presente trabajo muestra la metodología de desarrollo de un programa computacional para el análisis termoeconómico de sistemas de generación de energía bajo el esquema de cogeneración. Con los resultados obtenidos en la presente tesis, se pretende dar a conocer a las empresas los beneficios que puede tener la instalación de sistemas de cogeneración para cubrir sus demandas eléctricas y térmicas, fungiendo como una herramienta en el apoyo de toma de decisiones dentro de esta área. El desarrollo se realiza en colaboración de la compañía DIRAM. Para evaluar el desempeño del programa se plantearon dos Casos de Estudio, cada uno con una producción diferente: agua helada y agua caliente. Los resultados arrojados por el programa permiten comparar el desempeño energético, exergético y económico de los diferentes escenarios planteados. Con ello, se comprueba su utilidad en la realización de análisis simples, rápidos y confiables que sirven de base para la toma de decisiones respecto a proyecto de cogeneración.
    • Effect of ultrasound on protein yield and fate of alkaloids during lupin alkaline extraction process

      Chuck Hernández, Cristina Elizabeth; Othón Serna Saldívar, Sergio Román; Aguilar Acosta, Luis Alberto; Benavidez Lozano, Jorge Alejandro; Rodríguez Rodríguez, José (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-14)
      Protein isolates from legumes have attracted scientific attention because they are an efficient option to cover the daily protein requirement. One of the legumes with the highest protein content (20-50%) nowadays is Lupinus spp., with a good amino acid profile and moderate protein digestibility (≈ 70%) but with the presence, in certain species, of quinolizidine alkaloids (QA), toxic to the organism. The most popular method to QA removal is one based in washing with water, but inconvenient because of the high use of water and time. With the aim to propose eventually a new process for lupin detoxification, the objective of this work was the elucidation of the fate of QA during lupin protein extraction process assisted with ultrasound and the evaluation of the nutritional and functional properties of the protein fraction. Proximal characterization, concentration of anti-nutritional compounds, amino acid profile and protein solubility profile of flours from three lupin species were assessed: L. albus, L. angustifolious and L. mutabilis. The result showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) in protein concentration, total alkaloids and particle size between the three species flours. Considering the above, the species L. mutabilis and L. angustifolious were chosen to study the behavior of the protein fraction in terms of functionality (water absorption and nitrogen solubility), composition (protein yield and percentage reduction of alkaloids during the extraction process) and resistance to thermal treatments (displacement of denaturation temperature, change in secondary structure and modification of the electrophoretic profile). The results obtained for L. mutabilis described the ultrasound effect as beneficial for protein yield (14% more than control with 10 min ultrasound) and QA reduction from bagasse (81% less than control with 10 min ultrasound treatment) and protein isolate (50% less than control with 10 min ultrasound treatment). In addition, the change in protein structure and composition modified the functional and thermal properties of the protein, making the isolate a good candidate for food ingredient. In the other hand, L. angustifolious was more resistant to the ultrasound effect with no significant difference between treatments (10 and 15 min) and control but with the lower toxicity (3 ppm of QA in control protein isolate) and better amino acid score (0.85 of 15 min ultrasound treatment). These results will be useful to design processes to assist in the objective for meet protein demand of the population.
    • Assessment and redesign of a compressed air system in a steel foundry

      Herrera-Moreno, Josimar; Llamas-Terrés, Armando R.; De León-Aguirre, Sandra A.; Camargo-Reyes, Luis E. (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-14)
      Compressed air systems are regarded as one of the main utilities in industry; however, their continuous operation is not only inefficient but expensive. A case study on the energy efficiency of a large and complex compressed air system located inside a steel foundry is presented, where a reduction in energy consumption could be achieved. Through pertinent data recollection, and with the measurement of the most important variables in a compressed air system (flow, pressure, power), a characterization of the largest areas’ performance, is produced. Several possibilities for performance enhancement are considered and put forward.
    • Aprovechamiento de calor de gases de combustión en una planta acerera

      Sánchez Cisneros, Gilberto; Lozano García, Francisco José; Ugalde Barrales, Francisco Javier; Álvarez Guerra, Alejandro Juan (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-14)
      Los consumos energéticos en la industria del acero son diversos y representan un porcentaje significativo en el costo final del producto. México se encuentra en una transición energética efecto de los últimos cambios políticos y económicos de la nación. Tal transición abarca áreas como eficiencia energética y el uso de combustibles fósiles. Los procesos de una planta acerera generan enormes cantidades de gases de combustión desde sus chimeneas en equipos que queman gas natural. Se plantea realizar análisis técnico y económico comparativo de diferentes tecnologías de recuperación de calor comerciales. La meta del presente proyecto es analizar un caso real de aprovechamiento de calor residual de los gases de combustión proveniente de una chimenea en una planta acerera local, aplicando una tecnología que recupere el contenido energético no aprovechado a través de estos efluentes, para satisfacer una necesidad ya existente en la planta. La comparación técnica, producto del análisis de un equipo calentador, muestra que un ciclo Rankine orgánico básico entregaría 19kW de energía, una enfriadora de absorción de una etapa con COP=0.75 tendría una carga de o 111.7 TR (392kW); un generador de vapor suministraría 400 kg/s de vapor saturado a 5.5 kg/cm^2 y un precalentador de aire elevaría la temperatura del aire de combustión a 70°C generando un ahorro de 25 Nm3 de gas natural. En el análisis económico se utilizan métricas de costos equivalentes cuyos resultados entregan menores costos para las tecnologías de precalentamiento de aire y generación de vapor; y con el desarrollo de los estados de pérdidas y ganancias se demuestra que las tecnologías con mayor rentabilidad son la refrigeración por absorción con enfriadora de gases directos, y el precalentamiento de aire de combustión. Estas dos tecnologías cumplen con necesidades del área donde se encuentra el equipo calentador, generando ahorros y fomentando la eficiencia energética en la planta; de modo que queda a criterio de los directivos la elección de la tecnología a implementar. Se plantea como trabajo futuro que se validen estas tecnologías ante el mercado de bonos de carbono próximo a iniciar en México para obtener mayor rentabilidad en las tecnologías estudiadas.
    • Metodología de cálculo de las curvas de demanda de reserva para el mercado eléctrico mexicano

      Llamas Terrés, Armando; Perales-Martínez, Favio; Lezama-Lope, Uriel; Sánchez-Meléndez, David; Llamas-Terrés, Armando; Perales-Martínez, Favio; Lezama-Lope, Uriel (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-14)
      The energy reform to the Mexican electricity sector established the creation of a Wholesale Electricity Market (WEM) which seeks to optimize the production and supply of electric energy by minimizing costs and maximizing the social benefit of all market participants, taking care, at all times, of the reliability of the Electric Power System (EPS) A fundamental safety condition in an EPS is to maintain the equilibrium or constant balance between generation and demand, however, imbalances can occur as a consequence of forecast errors, forced outputs of generators, unexpected variations in demand and volatility in an unconventional generation such as solar and wind generation. These variations between generation and demand must be addressed quickly for which the Market Operator makes use of extra generation capacity known as Operating Reserve. The integration of renewable energies, photovoltaic and wind, besides being friendly to the environment, have multiple benefits in the electricity markets, one of them is the direct impact in reducing costs of generation of electric power, however, this type of technology has a high degree of uncertainty as it is directly dependent on weather conditions, making that the reliability of the EPS is compromised. Given a scenario of high penetration with these sources, adequate operational reserves must be available to deal with all possible operational scenarios. The WEM requires adequate price signals for the participants to indicate them when and where to invest in new generation capacity, also market mechanisms are required to dictate the correct price of the extra capacity as an operating reserve based on the benefit that it provides in the improvement of the reliability and safety of the EPS. The Reserve Demand Curves (RDC) are a dynamic mechanism for the evaluation of the adequate requirements of the reserve that the system requires due to they are obtained taking into account the different sources of uncertainty of the system that cause imbalances between generation and demand, besides they set an adequate price to the reserve based on its contribution in the improvement of the reliability of the system giving clear signals of the real condition of the system through its impact on the Local Marginal Price (LMP)  
    • Modelos de interconexión internacional de sistemas eléctricos entre EE. UU. y México

      Ibarra-Yúnez, Alejandro; Andrade Mex, Miguel Adrián; Llamas Terrés, Armando Rafael; Viramontes Brown, Federico Ángel (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-14)
      Los grandes cambios en la estructura del sistema eléctrico mexicano originados con la reforma energética; han creado nuevas oportunidades de negocio en el sector eléctrico. Una de estas oportunidades, es el interconectar los sistemas eléctricos entre dos o más países. Actualmente, la interconexión eléctrica entre EE.UU. y México es prácticamente nula, y poco se ha hecho para modificar las políticas energéticas sobre este tema. Se han hecho investigaciones sobre cómo estos modelos han funcionado en Europa y sobre sus beneficios en el desarrollo de la industria eléctrica. La interconexión entre países ha comprobado promover la eficiencia eléctrica, la reducción de costos, seguridad en el suministro eléctrico, desarrollo del bienestar social y el impulso en la utilización de energías limpias. México se beneficiaría al promover un mercado eléctrico internacional, originando una reducción en los costos de generación, transmisión, distribución y comercialización de la energía al participar en un mercado eléctrico, después de permanecer como un monopolio durante casi 70 años. Con esta investigación como tema de tesis para la Maestría de Ingeniería Energética (MIE), se espera obtener un modelo de planeación del sistema eléctrico mexicano enfocado en su componente internacional en el desarrollo de interconexiones de los sistemas eléctricos, obtener una idea de los beneficios que esto traería si se aplica en el corto plazo y el cómo deberían cambiar las políticas actuales de gestión de recursos energéticos.