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  • Mechatronic design of a fast-non-contact measurement system for inspection of castings parts in production line

    Ahuett-Garza, Horacio; Kurfess, Thomas R.; Guamán-Lozada, Darío F.; Urbina Coronado, Pedro Daniel; Orta Castañon, Pedro (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2019-05-11)
    Product recalls for suppliers (Tier 1-2-3) and OEM represents high financial losses and reputation damage. This has motivated manufacturers to inspect 100% of the specifications of 100% parts produced to avoid liability risks. In general, the manufactured parts are measured in CMM machines, the main problem is that it takes a long time to make the measurement. Therefore, CMM machines cannot be installed in a continuous line process. This problem has led industries to install gauging machines to have full control over their production. Gauging machines are not flexible, a number of sensors equal to the number of targets to be inspected is needed, complicating the maintenance and increasing the cost. Finally, most gauges are of the go-no go type, which only validates whether the characteristics comply with a standard. In addition, due to the arrival of the concept of industry 4.0, companies have seen the need to develop fast, reliable and accurate inspection machines capable of sending proper information about themselves or the product to the cloud. This work presents a new measurement system for an In-Line die-casting process. The main characteristic is the use of a linear motor and non-contact measurement technology for fast and reliable measurements. Also, the machine uses a novel kinematics coupling configuration to allow easy, fast, and accurate positioning of the part in the measurements area.  To be compatible with Industry 4.0 the inspection machine is equipped with sensors to send process information to the cloud like operation temperature, vibrations, and dynamic machine behavior.
  • Road load data acquisition system with SAE-J1939 communications network: integration and laboratory test

    Rodríguez González, Ciro Ángel; Siller Carrillo, Héctor Rafael; Orellana Cruz, Oscar; Martínez Romero, Oscar; Guedea Elizalde, Federico (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-14)
    This thesis discloses the results of a reliability analysis (R&R Study) through comparative method to validate a data acquisition (DAQ) system developed and built as a prototype. The laboratory conditions were established in order to test and validate the prototype when it acquires signals from accelerometers and strain gages as well as parameters taken from the electronic control unit (ECU), in this case a truck. The prototype equipment is composed of 9030 Compact RIO system with NI 9862 module for Controller Area Network (CAN) SAE J1939 and NI 9206 for analog inputs. 800 Hz sampling rate is programmed with LabVIEW code to acquire, store and analyze information. For the truck parameters, the code developed by Armando Ramírez in his research [6] was replicated and integrated into the code developed for the acquisition of signals with a user-friendly and versatile interface. The parameters are accelerator pedal position, engine speed, engine coolant temperature and wheel-based vehicle speed, with these parameters is possible to analyze the driving mode during the road tests. Instrumentation for acceleration was developed on a shaker to acquire the data, the frequency and wave amplitude were controlled by the use of a signal generator and signal amplifier. The reference data is acquired by a Brüel & Kjaer (B&K) module model 3160-A pattern equipment with PULSE Time Data Recorder software. Instrumentation for strain measurements was developed by simulating the strain gage measurement using a variable precision resistor. The reference data is acquired by a B & K module model 3160-A pattern equipment with PULSE Time Data Recorder software and two multimeters: OTC 55 series and MUL-280. The analysis range for these measurements is 0 to 80 Hz. The selected equipment demonstrated the DAQ system capability to perform vibration and deformation measurements with a resolution of 0.1 g and 100 μɛ respectively in the frequency range from 0 to 80 Hz, as well as obtain parameters from CAN J1939 protocol at the same time.
  • Ejercicio de Implementación de una metodología TPM para línea de decapado mecánico

    Azarang, Mohammad R.; Villarreal W.Ching, Salvador; Smith Cornejo, Neale Ricardo; Rivera Guerrero, Gabriel de Jesús (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-14)
    El presente documento corresponde a una propuesta de tesis para la obtención del grado de Maestro en Ciencias con especialidad en sistemas de Calidad y Productividad. En el 2013 la empresa Steel Technologies de México S.A. de C.V. adquirió una línea para el decapado de acero con una nueva tecnología basada en decapado mecánico eliminando así el uso y contaminación de ácidos como se ha hecho durante décadas. Esta línea denominada Eco Pickling Surface conocida por sus siglas en inglés (EPS). Esta nueva tecnología se inició en el año 2007 siendo la línea de Steel Technologies la séptima línea en operar en el mundo y la única línea con 4 celda de operación Para Steel Technologies la línea ha representado grandes costos por su alta demanda de operación y mantenimiento requeridos. En base a lo anterior en este trabajo de investigación se busca una metodología para mejorar la rentabilidad de la línea es así como la aplicación del Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) la cual en base a la disciplina de 5´s, Siendo la línea antes mencionada la única línea en su especie en México, nuestro diseño basado en 9 pasos a seguir, los cuales se enfocan en investigaciones en mantenimiento reales y su efectividad a través de los costos generados, buscando reducir los mismos, así como los productos consumibles indirectos que requiere para operar. IX Después de inspeccionar las actividades de mantenimiento se observan reportes en los cuales personal de este departamento llenaba formatos en oficina y no en la línea lo cual implicaba no revisar el equipo en su totalidad y esto llevaba a no cumplir con los programas de mantenimiento preventivos oportuna y adecuadamente. Se optimizaron las actividades más recurrentes de la línea con proyectos Kaizen y se obtuvo una mejora considerable de ahorro en tiempos, se hizo más eficiente las actividades y como resultados nos dio una reducción en paros de mantenimiento, lo cual en números cuantitativos se obtuvo una reducción en costos. Se detectó que los mismos estaban en aumento en virtud a dobles actividades y gasto por la mala planeación y eliminación de los mismos programas, la pérdida de tiempo también se detectó de manera importante, así como la mala utilización de herramientas no aptas para ciertas tareas. Una vez aplicado el modelo se procede a la recolección de datos para comparar con los datos obtenidos en periodos de tiempo previos y se muestra una mejoría considerable en los gastos de indirectos de la línea y cambios mejorables en la aplicación de actividades de mantenimiento siendo más efectivos y en mejor tiempo. También se detectó que, aun mejorando las actividades de mantenimiento, se encontraron algunas pérdidas para la empresa las cuales se citaran más adelante.
  • Caracterización de emulsiones preparadas mediante un inversor de flujo helicoidal

    López Salinas, José Luis; de la Herrán-Zambada, Mariandrea; Rivera Solorio, Carlos Iván; García Cuéllar, Alejandro Javier (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05)
    In the present work the effect of two emulsifiers in colloidal dispersion (oil / water) was studied using different preparation techniques. The emulsifiers analyzed were hydrophilic silica particles and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Both emulsifiers were previously dispersed using an ultrasonic bath and ultrasonic tip as preparation technique to evaluate the effect in the colloidal dispersion. According to the particle size distribution of each emulsifier, it was found that the ultrasonic tip offers more stability on aqueous dispersion because of the measurements reproducibility. The concentration effects of the silica particles and sodium dodecyl sulfate were studied measuring oil-water glass contact angle and oil-water interfacial tension. Samples were prepared using an ultrasonic tip, a coiled flow inverter and helical pipe. Experimental results suggest that silica particle concentration does not influence the interfacial tension and the contact angle in the oil-water system. The results also show that the interaction between surfactant and silica particle is affected by the mixing conditions during the colloidal dispersion process. Emulsions prepared with the ultrasonic tip show a strong interaction between both emulsifiers surfactant and silica particles, on the other hand, the coiled flow inverter and the helical pipe used under the laminar flow conditions show moderate and almost equal interaction between both emulsifiers according to droplet size distribution measures.
  • Metodología de cálculo de las curvas de demanda de reserva para el mercado eléctrico mexicano

    Llamas Terrés, Armando; Perales-Martínez, Favio; Lezama-Lope, Uriel; Sánchez-Meléndez, David; Llamas-Terrés, Armando; Perales-Martínez, Favio; Lezama-Lope, Uriel (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-14)
    The energy reform to the Mexican electricity sector established the creation of a Wholesale Electricity Market (WEM) which seeks to optimize the production and supply of electric energy by minimizing costs and maximizing the social benefit of all market participants, taking care, at all times, of the reliability of the Electric Power System (EPS) A fundamental safety condition in an EPS is to maintain the equilibrium or constant balance between generation and demand, however, imbalances can occur as a consequence of forecast errors, forced outputs of generators, unexpected variations in demand and volatility in an unconventional generation such as solar and wind generation. These variations between generation and demand must be addressed quickly for which the Market Operator makes use of extra generation capacity known as Operating Reserve. The integration of renewable energies, photovoltaic and wind, besides being friendly to the environment, have multiple benefits in the electricity markets, one of them is the direct impact in reducing costs of generation of electric power, however, this type of technology has a high degree of uncertainty as it is directly dependent on weather conditions, making that the reliability of the EPS is compromised. Given a scenario of high penetration with these sources, adequate operational reserves must be available to deal with all possible operational scenarios. The WEM requires adequate price signals for the participants to indicate them when and where to invest in new generation capacity, also market mechanisms are required to dictate the correct price of the extra capacity as an operating reserve based on the benefit that it provides in the improvement of the reliability and safety of the EPS. The Reserve Demand Curves (RDC) are a dynamic mechanism for the evaluation of the adequate requirements of the reserve that the system requires due to they are obtained taking into account the different sources of uncertainty of the system that cause imbalances between generation and demand, besides they set an adequate price to the reserve based on its contribution in the improvement of the reliability of the system giving clear signals of the real condition of the system through its impact on the Local Marginal Price (LMP)  

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