• Control charts for autocorrelated processes under parameter estimation

      Garza Venegas, Jorge Arturo
      Statistical Processes Monitoring is a collection of statistical-based methodologies and methods for monitoring the quality of manufactured products or services. Within these tools, control charts are powerful ones to assist practitioners on the detection of departures from in-control situations as long as the assumptions made on their design are fulfilled; otherwise, their power might decrease. For instance, control charts performance has been shown to be negatively affected when using estimated parameters (in which case the Average Run Length, ARL, becomes a random variable) or when dealing with autocorrelated data. Given that, this research is focused on the effect of parameter estimation on the performance of the X-bar and the modified S^2 control charts for monitoring the mean and the variance, respectively, of autocorrelated processes under parameter estimation. The average of the ARL and its standard deviation are considered as performance measures as they take into account the sampling variability of the ARL. Furthermore, a bootstrapping methodology is applied to adjust control limits in order to have a guaranteed conditional in-control performance with a certain probability and the effect on the out-of-control ARL is also studied.
    • Effects of sound on growth, viability, protein production yield and gene expression in Escherichia coli.

      Acuña González, Edgar
      The effect of sound on biological systems is a subject that has been previously explored, mainly in relation to its use to increase agricultural production. However, the potential of this phenomenon has not been exploited properly because present studies have focused only on one or two sound elements for the characterization of their biological effects. In this sense, the effects of other sound wave elements have been overlooked. In the present work, the effects of frequency, amplitude, duration, intermittence and pulse - individually and in combination - were characterized in Escherichia coli through the measurement of its biomass, viability and yield production of recombinant protein. The treatments of frequency and duration increased the concentration of biomass in 19% and 44% respectively at time 24 h; however, high variability was observed in both treatments. The amplitude treatment had a significant effect on the viability, which the duration of the exponential phase was doubled. The intermittency treatment increased the yield of recombinant protein 1.5 times without significant contribution of the other sound elements. Based on this observation, the effect that intermittency could have on the upregulation of the expression of genes involved in the production of recombinant proteins was investigated. The RNA of three candidate genes (BarA, CheA and CpxR) was quantified in the presence of an intermittent sound. All genes were upregulated (1.38, 2.66 and 1.33 times respectively); however, only upregulation related to chemotaxis (CheA) was statistically significant. Finally, an omnidirectional sound source was adapted to small-volume commercial bioreactors to characterize the distribution of sound within the container. It was determined that the implementation of sound induction in a commercial bioreactor is feasible, although limited to certain specific frequencies close to 500 and 1000 Hz. The integral nature of this characterization presents a deeper understanding of bacterial systems and also offers a way through which it is possible to explore its application for industrial purposes.
    • Characterization of the skin secretions of Dryophytes arenicolor and identification of Arenin, a novel Kunitz-like polypeptide

      Hernández Pérez, Jesús
      Zootherapy is the treatment of human ailments with remedies made from animals and their products. Despite its prevalence in the traditional medical practices worldwide, research on this phenomenon has often been neglected in comparison to medicinal plant research. Amphibian skin secretions are enriched with complex cocktails of bioactive molecules such as proteins, peptides, biogenic amines, alkaloids, guanidine derivatives, steroids and other minor components spanning a wide spectrum of pharmacological actions exploited for centuries in folk medicine. This study presents evidence on the protein profile of the skin secretions of the canyon tree frog, Dryophytes arenicolor, an anuran from the Hylidae family, previously described as an ingredient used in Mexican Traditional Medicine practices. At the same time, it presents the reverse-phase liquid chromatography isolation, mass spectrometry characterization, identification at mRNA level and 3D modelling of a novel 58 amino acids Kunitz-like polypeptide from the skin secretions of D. arenicolor, arenin. To evaluate the bioactivity potential of arenin, cell viability assays were performed on HDFa, Caco-2 and MCF7 cells cultured with different concentrations of arenin. At 2 µg/mL of arenin, HDFa and Caco-2 cells showed a viability of 52.1%±2.86 and 108.8%±4.86, respectively. A viability shift was observed at 4 µg/mL of arenin, since HDFa and Caco-2 cells showed a viability of 100.74%±2.60 and 62.77%±1.69. This viability alternance continued being observed at 8 and 16 µg/mL of arenin, suggesting a multi-target interaction in an hormetic-like fashion. This work demonstrates the lack of typical 12-50 amino acid long peptides in the skin secretions of D. arenicolor and proposes that arenin, one of its major constituents, plays a key role in its defense against predators. The hormetic response produced by arenin in cell proliferation assays requires further transcriptomic, metabolomic and proteomic research to unveil the mechanisms underlying the variable effect on cell viability observed at different concentrations of arenin.
    • Optimization of distribution networks using evolutionary algorithms

      Avilés Arévalo, Juan Pablo
      One of the biggest problems that a distribution network (DN) must face is the constant increase in load demand, which eventually will cause the degradation of its optimal operation. To overcome these challenges the distribution network usually is oversized or reinforced, however, although this is a quick and practical solution, it is not necessarily the most economical and efficient one. For this reason, it is desirable to implement an optimization algorithm to improve the network without increasing investment costs. The optimization of a power distribution network is not an easy task, because this is the most extensive part of the entire electrical system. Due to this extension, along with the high complexity of the topology, and some quality parameters that must be respected, the entire design or improvement of a distribution network can be considered as an extremely hard combinatorial, non-convex, and non-linear optimization problem, difficult to solve by conventional methods. For these reasons, we propose a Two-Stage Multiobjective Evolutionary Approach (TS-MOEAP) capable to design and optimize distribution networks, at primary and secondary levels. Due to the complexity of the optimization problem, the approach is implemented in two stages, that can be summarized as follows: Stage-1. Optimal placement and sizing of generation units, as well as optimal branch routing and conductor sizing. For this purpose, an Improved Particle Swarm Optimization technique (IPSO) combined with a greedy algorithm is introduced. Stage-2. Optimal network reconfiguration. For this, an Improved Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm with a Heuristic Mutation Operator (INSGA-HO) is presented, aiming at minimizing the total power loss and investment cost of the system. Finally, to complement the optimization process, the software DER-CAM will be used to find optimal investment solutions for Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Both algorithms are successfully applied to design and optimize real distribution networks that presented several problems, concluding that the combination of these approaches -network reconfiguration with optimal installation of DERs- can converge toward better configurations than other algorithms.
    • Emotional Domotics: acquisition of an equation for the correlation of emotional states and environmental variables through the facial expressions analysis of the user

      Navarro Tuch, Sergio Alberto
      The emotional domotics that is a concept developed by our research team seeks to integrate the subject or user of an inhabitable space as central element for the modulation and control of the environmental variables in a house automation implementation. This research proposed working with an influence on the subject emotional and physiological state, presenting an approach to state the subjects analysis when the light hue, temperature, and humidity are varied. The first experimental results led to the finding of the emotional response time dynamics. Such dynamics were important for further design and implementation of the control loops in-house automation systems for emotion modulation. Throughout this document, the details and progress of the research in emotional domotics, with the aim of developing a controlled algorithm for living space based on the user’s emotional state, will be illustrated and detailed. This project is centered on domotics (home automation) systems, which is, a set of elements installed, interconnected and controlled by a computer system. After introducing the investigation’s core, general preview, and the experiment´s description conducted with light hue variation. After the first experiments that led to the emotional response time dynamics. further research was developed in order to acquire and communicate the control system and to process and recover the physiological variables. The final sections of the work present a final experiment in which together the variables of temperature, humidity, and light intensity were applied to a more complete testing methodology. Which led to the final correlation equations for each of five basic emotions selected. These equations may allow us to propose an initial plant model for a control system to be developed by future researchers.
    • Urban radio propagation for vehicular environments, a spatial vehicular traffic density channel characterization

      Granda Gutiérrez, Fausto Lenin
      Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are envisaged to be a critical building block of Smart Cities and Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). Although there is a significant research effort in V2X (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure or Vehicle-to-Vehicle) radio channel characterization, the use of a deterministic approach as a complement of theoretical and empirical models is required to understand more accurately the propagation phenomena in urban environments. In this work, three computational tools were integrated to simulate the effects of the Vehicular Traffic Density (VTD) in the Urban Radio Propagation Channel (URPC) at 5.9Ghz: a 3D Ray-Launching (3D-RL), a detailed geographic database and a microscopic traffic simulator. Considerations as distance segmentation and spatial position from the transmitter were taken into account for accuracy and consistency in the subsequent analysis. Large-scale, small-scale, multipath metrics and coverage analysis is complemented with statistical characterization to explain the influence of different VTD levels in the URPC. Large-scale and small-scale results show the impact that factors such as relative Transmitter-Receiver (TX-RX) position, distance, link frequency, obstacles geometry, obstacles dielectric properties, and vehicle speed, have in the V2X propagation channel where parameters such as path loss exponent, amplitude of fading, and distribution shape factor cannot be assumed constant given the non-stationary nature of the vehicular communications channel. Otherwise, statistical characterization shows that Lognormal, and Weibull distributions can describe the fading RSS behavior for the VTD tested levels. The influence of the VTD in more significant in V2V and I2V links where. higher RSS values are related with the high VDT level, mainly in the vicinity of the TX, while there are not clear tendency or significant change in the RSS for V2X in remote areas from TX. These results are useful for radio-planning Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) designers and deployment of urban Road Side Units (RSUs)
    • Thermo-hydraulic performance modeling of thermal energy systems using parabolic trough solar collectors

      Tagle Salazar, Pablo Daniel
      Solar energy is one of the most important emerging renewable energy resources. Parabolic trough solar collectors are one of the most used technologies for solar concentrating applications. The main purpose of this research is to develop a mathematical model for predicting thermodynamics and hydraulics of solar-to-heat conversion of thermal systems using parabolic trough collectors. Thermal model is based on energy balance of a one-dimensional steady-state heat transfer thermal resistance circuit. The receiver and its surroundings are considered as the control volume of the analysis. Heat transfer coefficients are obtained using experimental correlations found in the literature. The model considers single-phase and two-phase flow with phase-change effects, where pressure drop is solved simultaneously with thermal energy balance. The input data corresponds to optics properties, design of collector, weather data, and basic hydraulic parameters (for series or parallel configurations). Parabolic trough collectors with Al2O3/water nanofluid is also considered as a case of study. Computational simulations are carried out using Engineering Equation Solver (EES), a software developed to solve complex systems of non-linear equations. This software was selected due to its simplicity in programing systems of non-linear equations and the available database of thermophysical properties of number of substances, including water and steam. Experimental data is used to validate the model, comparing with simulation results. Simulations are realized using same ambient and inlet operational conditions as described in test results. Sources of experimental data are test results of four collectors (for efficiency curves case), a M.Sc. Thesis previously presented (for nanofluid case), and from data provided by Plataforma Solar de Almeria (for direct steam generation case). Results show a good agreement between simulations and experiments. Thermal parameters (such as thermal efficiency and temperatures) are predicted with high accuracy. There was obtained a global absolute error of around 1.5 °C for temperatures and 2% in thermal efficiency. Comparison of temperature and pressure profiles using simulation results and experimental data of a direct steam generation system in once-trough mode show that the model can predict phase-change phenomena with high accuracy. Although, the model fails in predicting pressure drop with high steam quality two-phase flow.
    • Engineering mammalian-specific post-translational modifications in plant-derived proteins: phosphorylation and Mucin-type O-glycosylation as a challenge.

      Ramírez-Alanis, Israel A.
      Expression of economically relevant plant-derived recombinant proteins in alternative expression platforms, especially plant expression platforms, has gained significant interest in recent years, due to the possibility to reduce production costs, or because of product quality of production. Among the different qualities that plants can offer for the production of recombinant proteins, capability to perform post-translational modifications like protein glycosylation and phosphorylation are some of the crucial ones since it has an impact on pharmaceuticals functionality and/or stability or protein activity, respectively. In this dissertation, the pharmaceutical glycoprotein human Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor is transiently expressed in N. benthamiana, as several protein versions targeted to different compartments (apoplast, cytoplasm and as protein bodies), offering an alternative for the consideration of production of this protein. Furthermore, the glycoprotein was subjected to the native GalNAc-O-glycosylation, by co-expressing the pharmaceutical, together with the enzymes responsible for such glycosylation. In the case of phosphoproteins, the bovine β- and κ-caseins and their specific kinase the bovine Fam20C were also expressed for the first time in N. benthamiana plants, to assess the feasibility of controlling their phosphorylation pattern, which could be considered for the generation of soybean transgenic lines, enriched with such nutraceutical and nutrimental phosphoproteins.
    • Framework for consistent generation of linked data: the case of the user's academic profile on the web

      Alvarado Uribe, Joanna
      Decision management is relevant for high-value decisions that involve multiple types of input data. Since the Web allows users to keep in touch with other users and likewise, share their data (such as features, interests, and preferences) with applications and devices to customize a provided service, the online data related to these users can be collected as input data for a decision-making process. However, these data are usually provided to the application or device used in a given time, causing three major issues: data are isolated when are provided to a specific entity, data are scattered in the network, and data are found in different formats (structured, semi-structured, and unstructured). Therefore, with the aim of supporting decision makers to make better decisions, in a certain scenario, the proposal to automatically unify, align, and integrate the user data concerning this scope into a centralized and standardized structure that allows, at the same time, to model the user's profile on the Web in a consistent and updated manner as well as to generate linked data from the integrated information is addressed. This is where Decision Support Systems, Semantic Web, and context-enriched services become the cornerstones of the computational approach proposed as a solution to these issues. Firstly, given the generality of fields that can constitute a user profile, the definition of a scope that allows validating the proposed approach is emphasized for this research work. Secondly, the proposal, development, and evaluation of the computational solutions that allow dealing with the data modeling, integration, generation, and updating consistently are highlighted in this research. Therefore, a study focused on the academic area is proposed for this work in order to support researchers and data managers at the institutional level in processes and activities concerning this area, specifically at Tecnologico de Monterrey. To achieve this goal, the design of an interdisciplinary, justified, and interoperable meta-schema (called Academic SUP) that allows to model the user's academic profile on the Web, as well as the development of a computational framework (named as AkCeL) that allows to integrate, generate, and update data into such a meta-schema consistently are proposed in this research work. In addition, in order to support researchers in their decision-making processes, the development of a recommendation algorithm (called C-HyRA) that allows providing a research areas list interesting for researchers, as well as the adoption of a visualization platform related to the academic area to present the information generated by AkCeL are put forward in this proposal. As a result, unified, consistent, reliable, and updated information of the researcher' academic profile is provided on the Web from this approach, in both text and graphics, through the VIVO platform to be consumed primarily by researchers and educational institutions to support their networks and statistics of collaboration/publication and research.
    • Reception of Multiple Users in Reconfigurable Wireless Networks

      Velázquez Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel
      The next generation of wireless networks (WNs) will confront important challenges pre- sented by the high density and convergence of wireless elements (WEs), their influence on our lifestyle, and the proliferation of new paradigms of wireless communication systems. Co- existence, mobility, and multiple access are some issues widely studied in order to ensure their operation. In this work. it is introduced a framework of WNs considering association schemes, networking, and coexistence aspects which are useful concepts to describe their fea- tures and the relationship among elements. Code division multiple access (CDMA) systems are considered as attractive models to future wireless communication systems (WCS) in order to affront the new and changing challenges. Traditional direct sequences - code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) and double codification division multiple access (C2DMA) models provide engaging features given that offer continuous access to the wireless channel to every user, i.e. they permit coexistence of multiple users at the same time. These models are interference limited systems what make them vulnerable to usual issues in dynamic networks such as the Near-Far problem, Hidden and exposed terminals interference, etc. However, C2DMA model has been shown addi- tional properties that makes it attractive to reconfigurable wireless networks (RWNs) due to its robustness to interference. It considers a double correlation technique which provides si- multaneous reception and motivates the study of sequences used as codes in order to increase their use and visualise some applications. This work considers current and new sets of codes through an exhaustive search of useful sequences for both models. First, desired properties are identified for each model, next known sequence sets are tested with these properties. After that, an exhaustive search algorithm is used in order to select and group sequences to form all the possible code sets with desired properties. Finally, these models are tested in challenging scenarios in order to examine their performance and persuade about their potential in future WNs.
    • Platelets contribute to hemostasis, thrombosis, and allergic airway inflammation via Munc13-4-dependent secretion

      Cárdenas Cantú, Eduardo Israel (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de MonterreyInstituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-11-01)
      With over 200 million affected individuals, asthma is the most common chronic respiratory disease in the world. One old observation that begs an explanation is the relationship between platelets, their activation, and the manifestations of asthma. Although platelets are mostly known for their crucial role in coagulation, a growing body of evidence indicates they also participate in asthma. Platelets store in their alpha, dense, and lysosomal granules multiple mediators; most of which are required for effective coagulation, but some have been shown to affect the main pathophysiologic mechanisms in asthma: airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), migration and activation of eosinophils, and alterations in the airway epithelium. These granule contents are released upon activation via exocytosis, which depends on SNARE proteins and regulatory elements, such as Munc13 proteins. Because platelets express multiple isoforms of these proteins, it is possible that the exocytic components mediating the release of each type of platelet granule are unique. We proposed that by identifying the exocytic components associated with a single type of platelet granule, we could impair its release and study in vivo its role in asthma. We hypothesized that selective impairment of specific platelet granule subpopulations would alter the asthmatic response. With this in mind, we first identified the Munc13 paralogs expressed in platelets, and used loss-of-function models to test how each Munc13 protein participated in exocytosis of alpha, dense, and lysosomal granules. We then studied how the lack of a specific Munc13 protein affected platelet function in vitro and in vivo, using animal models of thrombosis and hemostasis. Finally, we studied platelet-specific knockout (KO) mice in an asthma model to test our hypothesis. We found that genetic deletion of Munc13-4 mostly impaired platelet dense granule release, which translated into a strong hemostatic defect, and that platelet-specific Munc13-4 KO mice had a reduction in airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilic inflammation in a model of asthma. Taken together, our results indicate that Munc13-4-dependent platelet secretion plays essential roles in hemostasis, thrombosis, and asthma.
    • Intelligent wheelchair

      Gregory Monnard Reguin, David; David Gregory Monnard Reguin
      The project proposed is creating a whellchair that includes four major features. The first is being able to control the chair by moving the eyes, the second is having the possiblility of reproducing prerecorded voice messages, th thirds is being able to control the chair with voice commands and the last feature is an avoidance system based on the data collected with the ultrasonic sensors.
    • Desarrollo de aplicaciones virtuales de entrenamiento médico incorporando dispositivos hápticos

      Ricárdez Vázquez, Eusebio; Eusebio Ricárdez Vázquez
      En este trabajo se desarrollan las técnicas necesarias para generar un ambiente virtual de entrenamiento médico que envía al usuario sensaciones táctiles a través de dispositivos hápticos, para lo cual se modeló el instrumental quirúrgico necesario. Se propone una forma de simular piel humana con diferentes características como grosor, flexibilidad, textura, etc. Se plantea un método de generación de respuesta háptica (haptic rendering) para superficies deformables aplicado a dicha piel. Se desarrollo un hilo que posee características que le permiten fijarse a una superficie deformable, colisionar con objetos sólidos y generar nudos simples. --Resumen.
    • Carbon policy in presence of a consumer-friendly firm

      Kalashnikov, Viacheslav; Kalashnykova, Nataliya; García Martínez, Arturo; Smith Cornejo, Neale Ricardo; Ángel Bello Acosta, Francisco Román; Güemes Castorena, David (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-07)
      This dissertation studies the implications of the emergence of a consumer-friendly firm in a duopolistic polluting industry when the regulator can or not commit credibly to an environmental instrument, such as an emission tax or a tradable permits policy. The welfare and environmental consequences are examined. It also investigates the conditions under which one of these instruments is superior to the other. In the second chapter, the study considers a Cournot duopoly model with a consumer-friendly firm and analyzes the interplay between the strategic choice of abatement technology and the timing of government’s commitment to the environmental tax policy. We show that the optimal emission tax under committed policy regime is always higher than that under non-committed one, but both taxes can be higher than marginal environmental damage when the consumer-friendliness is high enough. We also show that the emergence of a consumer-friendly firm might yield better outcomes to both welfare and environmental quality without the commitment to the environmental policy. The third chapter considers the timing of environmental policies with a consumerfriendly firm having abatement technology and compares two market-based regulatory instruments, tradable permits, and emission tax regulations. When the government can credibly commit its policy, we show that the equilibrium outcomes under both policies are equivalent in terms of permits price and tax rate. Under the non- committed policy, however, the equivalence breaks down because firms have opposite incentives to induce time-consistent policy to be adjusted ex-post. In particular, compared to pre-committed government, firms abate less emission to induce higher emission quotas under the permits policy while a consumer-friendly firm abates more emissions to reduce tax rate under the tax policy. Finally, we show that tax policy will result in higher welfare and lower environmental damage unless the concern on consumer surplus is considerable.
    • Self-Assembly behavior of amphiphilic janus dendrimers in water: a combined experimental and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation approach

      Valencia Gallegos, Jesús Ángel; Videa Vargas, Marcelo Fernando; Elizondo García, Mariana Estefanía; Gutiérrez Uribe, Janet Alejandra; González Nilo, Fernando Danilo; Cortéz Ramírez, Jorge (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, 2018-05-14)
      Amphiphilic Janus dendrimers (JDs) are repetitively branched molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic components that self-assemble in water to form a variety of morphologies, including vesicles analogous to liposomes with potential pharmaceutical and medical application. To date, the self-assembly of JDs has not been fully investigated thus it is important to gain insight into its mechanism and dependence on JDs’ molecular structure. In this study, a series of amphiphilic JDs with variations in their core and branching pattern was synthesized and its aggregation behavior in water was evaluated using experimental and computational methods. JDs were obtained from 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid, myristic acid and different glycols. Dispersions of JDs in water were carried out using the thin-film hydration, solvent injection methods and by microfluidics, using double emulsion drops with ultrathin shells as templates. Furthermore, a coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CG-MD) simulation was performed to study the mechanism of JDs aggregation. The resulting assemblies were characterized by optical microscopy, dynamic light scattering, confocal microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The obtaining of assemblies in water with no interdigitated bilayers was confirmed by the experimental characterization and CG-MD simulation for one of the dendrimers. Assemblies with dendrimersome characteristics were obtained using the solvent injection method. Also, monodisperse nanometric assemblies were obtained by this method. The use of microfluidics enables the production of giant dendrimersomes from highly hydrophobic JDs, even when the dendrimers did not form vesicles using the thin-film hydration method. The results of this study establish a relationship between the molecular structure of the JDs and the properties of its aggregates in water. These results could be relevant for the design of novel JDs with tailored assemblies suitable for drug delivery systems. In addition, this study offers an approach to produce dendrimersomes in a more controlled way.
    • Al-based robust multi-regime controller

      Ibarra Moyers, Luis Miguel; LUIS MIGUEL IBARRA MOYERS