• Modelling gene expression profiles related to prostate tumor progression using binary states

      Martinez, Emmanuel; Trevino, Victor (Open Access Publisher, 31/05/2013)
      Abstract Background Cancer is a complex disease commonly characterized by the disrupted activity of several cancer-related genes such as oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes. Previous studies suggest that the process of tumor progression to malignancy is dynamic and can be traced by changes in gene expression. Despite the enormous efforts made for differential expression detection and biomarker discovery, few methods have been designed to model the gene expression level to tumor stage during malignancy progression. Such models could help us understand the dynamics and simplify or reveal the complexity of tumor progression. Methods We have modeled an on-off state of gene activation per sample then per stage to select gene expression profiles associated to tumor progression. The selection is guided by statistical significance of profiles based on random permutated datasets. Results We show that our method identifies expected profiles corresponding to oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in a prostate tumor progression dataset. Comparisons with other methods support our findings and indicate that a considerable proportion of significant profiles is not found by other statistical tests commonly used to detect differential expression between tumor stages nor found by other tailored methods. Ontology and pathway analysis concurred with these findings. Conclusions Results suggest that our methodology may be a valuable tool to study tumor malignancy progression, which might reveal novel cancer therapies.
    • MIMO channel capacity using antenna selection and water pouring

      Cuan Cortes, Jose V.; Vargas-Rosales, Cesar; Munoz Rodriguez, David (Springer Open, 30/12/2014)
      Abstract The use of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems has attracted considerable attention due to capacity and performance improvements without increasing the required bandwidth or transmission power. Although MIMO improves the transmission rate and provides reliable communication, these advantages come at a high cost, since multiple radio frequency (RF) chains have to be employed. Therefore, cost-effective implementation of MIMO systems remains as an important challenge. In this sense, antenna selection techniques (AST) can help reduce the high cost of MIMO systems, while retaining most of their benefits; and in order to improve channel capacity, transmission power can be allocated efficiently according to the channel experienced by each antenna element. In this paper, we show the channel capacity improvement of MIMO systems, by combining the use of AST and transmission power allocation through the water-pouring algorithm (WPA) for different antenna configurations. We apply WPA and allocate more power to the channel with better conditions, when the MIMO channel is Rayleigh distributed and noise is Gaussian. By employing these two techniques (AST and WPA), we show that channel capacity is significantly improved, with higher capacity values than those obtained using traditional systems which just spread equal power among all the transmit antennas. We also show that bounds on the capacity can be considered when these improvements are used in a MIMO system.
    • Protein adsorption through Chitosan–Alginate membranes for potential applications

      Murguía Flores, Dennise A.; Bonilla Ríos, Jaime; Canales Fiscal, Martha R.; Sánchez Fernández, Antonio; Tecnologico de Monterrey (Springer Open, 30/04/2016)
      Abstract Background Chitosan and Alginate were used as biopolymers to prepare membranes for protein adsorption. The network requires a cross-linker able to form bridges between polymeric chains. Viscopearl-mini® (VM) was used as a support to synthesize them. Six different types of membranes were prepared using the main compounds of the matrix: VM, Chitosan of low and medium molecular weight, and Alginate. Results Experiments were carried out to analyze the interactions within the matrix and improvements were found against porous cellulose beads. SEM characterization showed dispersion in the compounds. According to TGA, thermal behaviour remains similar for all compounds. Mechanical tests demonstrate the modulus of the composites increases for all samples, with major impact on materials containing VM. The adsorption capacity results showed that with the removal of globular protein, as the adsorbed amount increased, the adsorption percentage of Myoglobin from Horse Heart (MHH) decreased. Molecular electrostatic potential studies of Chitosan–Alginate have been performed by density functional theory (DFT) and ONIOM calculations (Our own N-layered integrated molecular orbital and molecular mechanics) which model large molecules by defining two or three layers within the structure that are treated at different levels of accuracy, at B3LYP/6-31G(d) and PM6/6-31G(d) level of theory, using PCM (polarizable continuum model) solvation model. Conclusions Finally, Viscopearl-mini® acts as a suitable support on the matrix for the synthesis of Chitosan–Alginate membranes instead of cross-linkers usage. Therefore, it suggests that it is a promise material for potential applications, such as: biomedical, wastewater treatment, among others. Graphical abstract Chitosan, Alginate, and Cellulose beads-based membranes for protein adsorption. Special attention was given for preparation, charaterization, adsorption capacity, and molecular electrostatic potential studies calculation. Viscopearl-mini® gives support on the matrix of Chitosan–Alginate membranes instead of cross-linkers usage
    • Integration and comparison of different genomic data for outcome prediction in cancer

      Gomez Rueda, Hugo; Martínez Ledesma, Emmanuel; Martínez Torteya, Antonio; Palacios Corona, Rebeca; Treviño, Victor; Tecnologico de Monterrey (Open Access Publisher, 29/10/2005)
      In cancer, large-scale technologies such as next-generation sequencing and microarrays have produced a wide number of genomic features such as DNA copy number alterations (CNA), mRNA expression (EXPR), microRNA expression (MIRNA), and DNA somatic mutations (MUT), among others. Several analyses of a specific type of these genomic data have generated many prognostic biomarkers in cancer. However, it is uncertain which of these data is more powerful and whether the best data-type is cancer-type dependent. Therefore, our purpose is to characterize the prognostic power of models obtained from different genomic data types, cancer types, and algorithms. For this, we compared the prognostic power using the concordance and prognostic index of models obtained from EXPR, MIRNA, CNA, MUT data and their integration for ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV), multiform glioblastoma (GBM), lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), and breast cancer (BRCA) datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas repository. We used three different algorithms for prognostic model selection based on constrained particle swarm optimization (CPSO), network feature selection (NFS), and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO).
    • Reference values for amino acids and acylcarnitines in peripheral blood in Quarter horses and American Miniature horses

      Rodríguez-Sánchez, Irám P.; Treviño Alvarado, Víctor M.; del Rosario Torres-Sepúlveda, María; López Saldaña, Liliana A.; Ponce García, Gustavo; López Uriarte, Graciela A.; del Consuelo Ruiz-Herrera, María; Zamora Ávila, Diana E.; Villarreal Pérez, Jesús Z.; Dávalos Aranda, Guillermo; Martínez de Villarreal, Laura E. (Springer Open, 29/09/2015)
      Abstract Background Free amino acids and acylcarnitines circulating in the blood can be used for diagnosis for metabolic illness and imbalances. To date, the normal reference ranges of amino acids and acylcarnitines in horse peripheral blood have not been established. In this study, the concentrations of 12 amino acids and 26 acylcarnitines were determined by tandem mass spectrometry in complete blood from 100 healthy horses (50 Quarter horses (QH) [23 males and 27 females] and 50 American Miniature horses (AMH) [15 males and 35 females]) with no signs of metabolic disease. The means and standard deviations were determined and data statistically analyzed. Findings Concentrations of short, medium, and long chain acylcarnitines were significantly higher in male AMH than in male QH. The concentrations of the amino acids alanine, arginine, glycine, proline (glycogenic), and leucine (ketogenic) were higher in the QH than in the AMH. Female AMH had higher concentrations of propionylcarnitine, leucine, proline, arginine, and ornithine than female QH. Conclusions Normal reference ranges of amino acids and acylcarnitines were established for AMH and QH. Significant differences were found in concentration of these compounds between breeds and gender.
    • Protective mechanisms of medicinal plants targeting hepatic stellate cell activation and extracellular matrix deposition in liver fibrosis

      Duval, Florent; Moreno Cuevas, Jorge E.; González Garza y Barrón, María T.; Rodríguez Montalvo, Carlos; Cruz Vega, Delia E. (Springer Open, 24/12/2014)
      Abstract During chronic liver injury, hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are activated and proliferate, which causes excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, leading to scar formation and fibrosis. Medicinal plants are gaining popularity as antifibrotic agents, and are often safe, cost-effective, and versatile. This review aims to describe the protective role and mechanisms of medicinal plants in the inhibition of HSC activation and ECM deposition during the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. A systematic literature review on the anti-fibrotic mechanisms of hepatoprotective plants was performed in PubMed, which yielded articles about twelve relevant plants. Many of these plants act via disruption of the transforming growth factor beta 1 signaling pathway, possibly through reduction in oxidative stress. This reduction could explain the inhibition of HSC activation and reduction in ECM deposition. Medicinal plants could be a source of anti-liver fibrosis compounds.
    • Comparative genomics of bacterial and plant folate synthesis and salvage: predictions and validations

      de Crécy Lagard, Valérie; El Yacoubi, Basma; de la Garza, Rocío D; Noiriel, Alexandre; Hanson, Andrew D; Tecnologico de Monterrey (Open Access Publisher, 23/07/2007)
      Abstract Background Folate synthesis and salvage pathways are relatively well known from classical biochemistry and genetics but they have not been subjected to comparative genomic analysis. The availability of genome sequences from hundreds of diverse bacteria, and from Arabidopsis thaliana, enabled such an analysis using the SEED database and its tools. This study reports the results of the analysis and integrates them with new and existing experimental data. Results Based on sequence similarity and the clustering, fusion, and phylogenetic distribution of genes, several functional predictions emerged from this analysis. For bacteria, these included the existence of novel GTP cyclohydrolase I and folylpolyglutamate synthase gene families, and of a trifunctional p-aminobenzoate synthesis gene. For plants and bacteria, the predictions comprised the identities of a 'missing' folate synthesis gene (folQ) and of a folate transporter, and the absence from plants of a folate salvage enzyme. Genetic and biochemical tests bore out these predictions. Conclusion For bacteria, these results demonstrate that much can be learnt from comparative genomics, even for well-explored primary metabolic pathways. For plants, the findings particularly illustrate the potential for rapid functional assignment of unknown genes that have prokaryotic homologs, by analyzing which genes are associated with the latter. More generally, our data indicate how combined genomic analysis of both plants and prokaryotes can be more powerful than isolated examination of either group alone.
    • Metabolism of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol in a Gram-positive bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. PMA

      Arora, Pankaj K.; Sharma, Ashutosh; Mehta, Richa; Shenoy, Belle D.; Srivastava, Alok; Singh, Vijay P.; Tecnologico de Monterrey (Open Access Publisher, 21/11/2012)
      Abstract Background Chloronitrophenols (CNPs) are widely used in the synthesis of dyes, drugs and pesticides, and constitute a major group of environmental pollutants. 4-Chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP) is an isomer of CNPs that has been detected in various industrial effluents. A number of physicochemical methods have been used for treatment of wastewater containing 4C2NP. These methods are not as effective as microbial degradation, however. Results A 4C2NP-degrading bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. PMA, which uses 4C2NP as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from a chemically-contaminated site in India. Exiguobacterium sp. PMA degraded 4C2NP with the release of stoichiometeric amounts of chloride and ammonium ions. The effects of different substrate concentrations and various inoculum sizes on degradation of 4C2NP were investigated. Exiguobacterium sp. PMA degraded 4C2NP up to a concentration of 0.6 mM. High performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry identified 4-chloro-2-aminophenol (4C2AP) and 2-aminophenol (2AP) as possible metabolites of the 4C2NP degradation pathway. The crude extract of 4C2NP-induced PMA cells contained enzymatic activity for 4C2NP reductase and 4C2AP dehalogenase, suggesting the involvement of these enzymes in the degradation of 4C2NP. Microcosm studies using sterile and non-sterile soils spiked with 4C2NP were carried out to monitor the bioremediation potential of Exiguobacterium sp. PMA. The bioremediation of 4C2NP by Exiguobacterium sp. PMA was faster in non-sterilized soil than sterilized soil. Conclusions Our studies indicate that Exiguobacterium sp. PMA may be useful for the bioremediation of 4C2NP-contaminated sites. This is the first report of (i) the formation of 2AP in the 4C2NP degradation pathway by any bacterium and (iii) the bioremediation of 4C2NP by any bacterium.
    • Novel way to investigate evolution of children refractory epilepsy by complexity metrics in massive information

      Zavala Yoe, Ricardo; Ramírez Mendoza, Ricardo A.; Cordero, Luz M.; Tecnologico de Monterrey (SpringerOpen Journal, 21/08/2015)
      Abstract Epilepsy demands a major burden at global levels. Worldwide, about 1% of people suffer epilepsy and 30% of them (0.3%) are anticonvulsants resistant. Among them, some children epilepsies are peculiarly difficult to deal with as Doose syndrome (DS). Doose syndrome is a very complicated type of children cryptogenic refractory epilepsy (CCRE) which is traditionally studied by analysis of complex electrencephalograms (EEG) by neurologists. CCRE are affections which evolve in a course of many years and customarily, questions such as on which year was the kid healthiest (less seizures) and on which region of the brain (channel) the affection has been progressing more negatively are very difficult or even impossible to answer as a result of the quantity of EEG recorded through the patient’s life. These questions can now be answered by the application of entropies to massive information contained in many EEG. CCRE can not always be cured and have not been investigated from a mathematical viewpoint as far as we are concerned. In this work, a set of 80 time series (distributed equally in four yearly recorded EEG) is studied in order to support pediatrician neurologists to understand better the evolution of this syndrome in the long term. Our contribution is to support multichannel long term analysis of CCRE by observing simple entropy plots instead of studying long rolls of traditional EEG graphs. A comparative analysis among aproximate entropy, sample entropy, our versions of multiscale entropy (MSE) and composite multiscale entropy revealed that our refined MSE was the most convenient complexity measure to describe DS. Additionally, a new entropy parameter is proposed and is referred to as bivariate MSE (BMSE). Such BMSE will provide graphical information in much longer term than MSE.
    • La posibilidad de creencias religioso-regionales. Una aproximación desde el significado de la religión católica en el Occidente de México

      Coss y León Coss y León, Domingo; Vázquez Parra, José C.; Escuela de Humanidades y Educación (Universidad de Costa Rica, 2018-12)
      Cuando hablamos de creencias religiosas, es usual que hagamos referencia a un sistema ideológico por medio del cual un individuo se relaciona con su Dios. Sin embargo, hay algunos de estos códigos morales que consiguen trascender del terreno plenamente espiritual, influyendo de manera muy considerable en la forma en que los individuos se comportan o deciden en la sociedad. El presente artículo busca exponer la posibilidad de creencias de tipo religioso-regionales, las cuales un individuo de una cierta población o ciudad adopte como parte de su forma de ser y elegir, o incluso, como una característica propia de pertenencia, más allá del sentido exclusivamente religioso.
    • Validity and reliability of a survey to know the technological acceptance of an institutional repository: The case of resources on energy and sustainability

      Gonzalez-Perez, Laura-Icela; Ramírez-Montoya, María Soledad; García-Peñalvo, Francisco J; Valenzuela-González, Jaime Ricardo; Pinto-Llorente, Ana-María; Tecnológico de Monterrey; Universidad de Salamanca (2018-11)
      El propósito de esta ponencia es presentar la validez y confiablidad de una encuesta diseñada para conocer la aceptación tecnológica del Repositorio Institucional RITEC del Tecnológico de Monterrey. La pregunta de investigación por responder es: ¿cómo influye la experiencia de usuario en el éxito o fracaso de la aceptación de un Repositorio Institucional?. La encuesta consta de cuatro dimensiones basadas en el Modelo de Aceptación Tecnológica (TAM): utilidad percibida (PU), facilidad de uso percibida (EU), actitudes hacia el uso (ATU) e intención de uso (BIU). La encuesta piloto fue aplicada a 47 estudiantes matriculados en el curso virtual  “Visibilidad del conocimiento abierto a través del RITEC”. Los resultados obtenidos del análisis de confiabilidad, usando el índice Alfa de Cronbach, permiten señalar la alta consistencia interna de la encuesta. La validez de la encuesta se centra en la validez de contenido, valorada por un conjunto de expertos.
    • De los ambientes a distancia a los cursos masivos abiertos: El caso de los MOOC del Tecnológico de Monterrey

      Ramirez-Montoya, María Soledad; Farías Gaytán, SIlvia Catalina; Tecnológico de Monterrey (Editorial Brujas, 2018-10-30)
      Los ambientes de aprendizaje que integran tecnologías permiten alcances geográficos y de cobertura que pueden llegar a impactar en diversos entornos. El objetivo de este capítulo es analizar los ambientes a distancia de una institución de educación superior privada mexicana, concretamente, de los cursos masivos abiertos (MOOC, por sus siglas en inglés), en el entorno del movimiento educativo abierto. La pregunta guía del capítulo plantea ¿Cuáles son los alcances y retos que presentan los MOOC en el marco de una democratización del conocimiento? Se usan elementos de la metodología de estudio de casos para describir las características particulares y diferenciadas, la secuencia de cómo se han desarrollado diferentes ambientes MOOC, en el contexto particular de la institución oferente y la globalidad de la situación analizada. Los asertos dan cuenta de los retos, los alcances y la perspectiva que vislumbra este caso, con miras a aportar datos para la tecnología educativa, la innovación y la pedagogía digital, en el marco de una educación de acceso abierto para todos y de la contribución para la agenda de desarrollo sostenible de las Naciones Unidas. Los ambientes de aprendizaje que integran tecnologías permiten alcances geográficos y de cobertura que pueden llegar a impactar en diversos entornos. El objetivo de este capítulo es analizar los ambientes a distancia de una institución de educación superior privada mexicana, concretamente, de los cursos masivos abiertos (MOOC, por sus siglas en inglés), en el entorno del movimiento educativo abierto. La pregunta guía del capítulo plantea ¿Cuáles son los alcances y retos que presentan los MOOC en el marco de una democratización del conocimiento? Se usan elementos de la metodología de estudio de casos para describir las características particulares y diferenciadas, la secuencia de cómo se han desarrollado diferentes ambientes MOOC, en el contexto particular de la institución oferente y la globalidad de la situación analizada. Los asertos dan cuenta de los retos, los alcances y la perspectiva que vislumbra este caso, con miras a aportar datos para la tecnología educativa, la innovación y la pedagogía digital, en el marco de una educación de acceso abierto para todos y de la contribución para la agenda de desarrollo sostenible de las Naciones Unidas.
    • Identidad digital 2.0: Posibilidades de la gestión y visibilidad científica a través de Repositorios Institucionales de Acceso Abierto

      Gonzalez-Perez, Laura-Icela; Ramírez-Montoya, María Soledad; García-Peñalvo, Francisco José; Merlo-Vega, José Anotonio; Universidad de Salamanca; Tecnológico de Monterrey (Ediciones Universidad Salamanca, 2018-10-23)
      Las plataformas tecnológicas utilizadas a favor de vías de comuni cación científica presentan un cambio con la llegada de nuevas aplicaciones que tienen funcionalidades que hacen más satisfactorio llevar a cabo distintas tareas a través de sus interfaces. Los repositorios institucionales requieren una nueva visión que integre los aspectos que conlleva la visibilidad científica y nuevas funcionalidades tecnológicas, por lo que es necesario conocer las necesidades de sus usuarios para agilizar la difusión de su producción científica. La metodología utilizada para el presente estudio ha sido cualitativa, a través de tres grupos focales en una institución de educación superior. La pregunta que se plantea en este estudio es ¿qué elementos pueden contribuir para dar visibilidad a la producción científica de profesores y estudiantes a través de un Repositorio Institucional? Los resultados apuntan a que para aumentar el uso del Repositorio Institucional se requiere de una campaña de difusión que informe del para qué sirve y una capacitación dirigida a los investigadores y doctorandos, que fomente e incentive el uso de prácticas científicas a favor de la difusión en acceso abierto.
    • Instrumento Aceptación Tecnológica para Repositorios Institucionales

      González-Pérez, Laura Icela; Ramírez-Montoya, María Soledad; García-Peñalvo, Francisco José; Tecnológico de Monterrey (Tecnológico de Monterrey, 2018-09-06)
      Por lo anterior, se va a medir la percepción de los profesores y estudiantes de una universidad con respecto al uso del repositorio institucional. La información que se recabe aportará información en tres aspectos:  Percepción de facilidad de uso: Con esta información diseñadores, bibliotecarios y programadores podrán contar con los requisitos, necesidades y problemas que enfrentan los usuarios y diseñar la arquitectura de información y el diseño interactivo centrado en sus necesidades.  Grado de aceptación de utilidad: Con esta información los directivos de investigación de las universidades y el comité de acceso abierto podrán reconocer si existe la difusión, la formación y las actividades que pueden reforzar la cultura de investigación en abierto de la Institución.  Actitud de los profesores y estudiantes: Al detectar la actitud de la comunidad se puede explorar la intención de uso en el futuro (García-Peñalvo, 2017) y crear una estrategia para incentivar con recursos el uso del repositorio institucional y alargar la vida del producto o cambiar de producto. 
    • Instrumento Grupos focales para Repositorios Institucionales

      González-Pérez, Laura Icela; Ramírez-Montoya, María Soleadd; García-Peñalvo, Francisco José; Tecnológico de Monterrey (Tecnológico de Monterrey, 2018-09-06)
      El presente instrumento se ha diseñado para conocer las motivaciones, expectativas y actitudes que tienen investigadores y alumnos al utilizar el repositorio institucional de su universidad y de esta manera conocer sus necesidades e inquietudes.  Dicho instrumento pertenece a una investigación conjunta del grupo GRIAL de la Universidad de Salamanca e investigadores del Tecnológico de Monterrey 
    • Innovative Education in MOOC for Sustainability: Learnings and Motivations

      Carrera, Jeimmy; Ramírez-Hernández, Darinka (2018-08-23)
      This research project analyzes the motivation and learning perceived by the participants in four Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) that use innovative education strategies in order to train the community in Education for Sustainability. These MOOCs were delivered during 2017 and the study forms part of the subproject “Open, Interdisciplinary and Collaborative Innovation to Train in Energy Sustainability through MOOCs”, which was offered in the portal of the Binational Laboratory for Intelligent Energy Sustainability Management and Technology Training. The method utilized was mixed, with a triangulation design approach according to the convergence model. This method consisted of two phases: the first being quantitative, with an online survey designed by experts in a Likert type scale, and the second being qualitative, in which valuations of the users were collected through diverse instruments such as focus groups and observations. The results obtained demonstrate the advantages of designing MOOCs that make use of innovative tools, in order to engage the students as much as possible, and the collateral impact on the development of digital abilities and skills in addition to the learning acquired with respect to sustainability.
    • Instructional & technological design for technologically mediated learning milieus, an answer for open technological integration of online lab in today´s stem classroom

      Assaf, Nayiv; Ramírez-Hernández, Darinka; Tecnologico de Monterrey (2018-07-04)
      Technological mediation is, and will be, one of the greatest topics in modern learning. The technology-education integration is one of its most important bifurcations. The success for technology to be integrated into educational scenarios has always been on the educational field side, and has as necessary conditions planning and instructional design. But today´s contemporary instructional design implementation faces ever more complex technologies that have to be adapted or modified into increasingly disruptive learning models, making it increasingly difficult to integrate technology into the classroom, which in turn requires the mandatory application of models and theories that structure and guide ideas, needs, uses and even designer intuitions, which presents the educational technologist fundamental issue, the dichotomy of the teacher-technologist binomial or one is a very good teacher or one is a very good technologist. The objective of this work is to propose an instructional and technological design macro-structure for technologically mediated learning milieus that merge ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology) Criterion 3 as the instructional axiom of design principles with the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning to integrate the mediated online laboratory technological feature, either remote or in-situ, with the educational one.
    • Effective Completion Rate Design for MOOCs of the Binational Laboratory for Intelligent Energy Sustainability Management and Technological Training

      Assaf, Nayiv; Ramírez-Hernández, Darinka; Glasserman, Leonardo; Tecnologico de Monterrey (2018-07-04)
      The completion rate in MOOC has been the subject of many criticisms and observations; the reality is that this educational topic has been adapted from non-systematic ways from the classroom education to the open one without the necessary conceptual adjustments. Completion rates that MOOC have maintained over time, have been judged as very low, as well as unreliable and poorly calculated, to improve this situation, it has expressed the need for new models for theorizing on an effective terminal efficiency to be specifically designed for open, massive and online learning environments. For some years, in the e-learning guild, ROI economic models of completion rates have been developed to evaluate, account for and pay for the work done by the advisors/teachers/tutors of e-learning courses. These models are the perfect foundation to design and develop the basis of an effective completion rate for open and massive online learning environments. An effective completion rate design for MOOC should, in the first instance, differentiate among all types of users (some of which do not exist in face-to-face training, which partly explains some of the causes of the confusion in its interpretation and adaptation to the online environment) of the services offered in a MOOC.
    • Reducing national energy illiteracy through MOOC's

      Castañeda, Gerardo; Valerio Ureña, Gabriel; Tecnológico de Monterrey (2018-06-28)
      One of the main challenges facing humanity is energy sustainability, both in normal conditions and in situations of natural disasters. In Mexico, experience has highlighted the lack of basic skills of citizens for energy production and management. Given this situation, free MOOCs have been offered to the entire population. The objective of this research is to evaluate the extent to which these technological platforms help reduce the participants' energy illiteracy. The research is mixed. The first stage is qualitative, to construct an instrument to evaluate the level of energy literacy, and includes the analysis of artifacts, non-participatory observation and interviews with Japanese and Mexican experts. The second stage is quantitative; to evaluate the improvement of the level of energy literacy, and pre and post surveys are used.
    • Blockchain potentials in education and open science

      Ramírez Montoya, María Soledad; Tecnologico de Monterrey (2018-06-26)
      Support the formation of human resources specialized in energy sustainability, and develop human talent with the necessary capabilities to respond to the technological conditions prevailing in the energy value chain (Electric sector), through graduate programs, massive open online courses and networking that will be available nationwide, and validate through competencies certification processes.