• Modelling gene expression profiles related to prostate tumor progression using binary states

      Martinez, Emmanuel; Trevino, Victor (Open Access Publisher, 31/05/2013)
      Abstract Background Cancer is a complex disease commonly characterized by the disrupted activity of several cancer-related genes such as oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes. Previous studies suggest that the process of tumor progression to malignancy is dynamic and can be traced by changes in gene expression. Despite the enormous efforts made for differential expression detection and biomarker discovery, few methods have been designed to model the gene expression level to tumor stage during malignancy progression. Such models could help us understand the dynamics and simplify or reveal the complexity of tumor progression. Methods We have modeled an on-off state of gene activation per sample then per stage to select gene expression profiles associated to tumor progression. The selection is guided by statistical significance of profiles based on random permutated datasets. Results We show that our method identifies expected profiles corresponding to oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in a prostate tumor progression dataset. Comparisons with other methods support our findings and indicate that a considerable proportion of significant profiles is not found by other statistical tests commonly used to detect differential expression between tumor stages nor found by other tailored methods. Ontology and pathway analysis concurred with these findings. Conclusions Results suggest that our methodology may be a valuable tool to study tumor malignancy progression, which might reveal novel cancer therapies.
    • MIMO channel capacity using antenna selection and water pouring

      Cuan Cortes, Jose V.; Vargas-Rosales, Cesar; Munoz Rodriguez, David (Springer Open, 30/12/2014)
      Abstract The use of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems has attracted considerable attention due to capacity and performance improvements without increasing the required bandwidth or transmission power. Although MIMO improves the transmission rate and provides reliable communication, these advantages come at a high cost, since multiple radio frequency (RF) chains have to be employed. Therefore, cost-effective implementation of MIMO systems remains as an important challenge. In this sense, antenna selection techniques (AST) can help reduce the high cost of MIMO systems, while retaining most of their benefits; and in order to improve channel capacity, transmission power can be allocated efficiently according to the channel experienced by each antenna element. In this paper, we show the channel capacity improvement of MIMO systems, by combining the use of AST and transmission power allocation through the water-pouring algorithm (WPA) for different antenna configurations. We apply WPA and allocate more power to the channel with better conditions, when the MIMO channel is Rayleigh distributed and noise is Gaussian. By employing these two techniques (AST and WPA), we show that channel capacity is significantly improved, with higher capacity values than those obtained using traditional systems which just spread equal power among all the transmit antennas. We also show that bounds on the capacity can be considered when these improvements are used in a MIMO system.
    • Protein adsorption through Chitosan–Alginate membranes for potential applications

      Murguía Flores, Dennise A.; Bonilla Ríos, Jaime; Canales Fiscal, Martha R.; Sánchez Fernández, Antonio; Tecnologico de Monterrey (Springer Open, 30/04/2016)
      Abstract Background Chitosan and Alginate were used as biopolymers to prepare membranes for protein adsorption. The network requires a cross-linker able to form bridges between polymeric chains. Viscopearl-mini® (VM) was used as a support to synthesize them. Six different types of membranes were prepared using the main compounds of the matrix: VM, Chitosan of low and medium molecular weight, and Alginate. Results Experiments were carried out to analyze the interactions within the matrix and improvements were found against porous cellulose beads. SEM characterization showed dispersion in the compounds. According to TGA, thermal behaviour remains similar for all compounds. Mechanical tests demonstrate the modulus of the composites increases for all samples, with major impact on materials containing VM. The adsorption capacity results showed that with the removal of globular protein, as the adsorbed amount increased, the adsorption percentage of Myoglobin from Horse Heart (MHH) decreased. Molecular electrostatic potential studies of Chitosan–Alginate have been performed by density functional theory (DFT) and ONIOM calculations (Our own N-layered integrated molecular orbital and molecular mechanics) which model large molecules by defining two or three layers within the structure that are treated at different levels of accuracy, at B3LYP/6-31G(d) and PM6/6-31G(d) level of theory, using PCM (polarizable continuum model) solvation model. Conclusions Finally, Viscopearl-mini® acts as a suitable support on the matrix for the synthesis of Chitosan–Alginate membranes instead of cross-linkers usage. Therefore, it suggests that it is a promise material for potential applications, such as: biomedical, wastewater treatment, among others. Graphical abstract Chitosan, Alginate, and Cellulose beads-based membranes for protein adsorption. Special attention was given for preparation, charaterization, adsorption capacity, and molecular electrostatic potential studies calculation. Viscopearl-mini® gives support on the matrix of Chitosan–Alginate membranes instead of cross-linkers usage
    • Integration and comparison of different genomic data for outcome prediction in cancer

      Gomez Rueda, Hugo; Martínez Ledesma, Emmanuel; Martínez Torteya, Antonio; Palacios Corona, Rebeca; Treviño, Victor; Tecnologico de Monterrey (Open Access Publisher, 29/10/2005)
      In cancer, large-scale technologies such as next-generation sequencing and microarrays have produced a wide number of genomic features such as DNA copy number alterations (CNA), mRNA expression (EXPR), microRNA expression (MIRNA), and DNA somatic mutations (MUT), among others. Several analyses of a specific type of these genomic data have generated many prognostic biomarkers in cancer. However, it is uncertain which of these data is more powerful and whether the best data-type is cancer-type dependent. Therefore, our purpose is to characterize the prognostic power of models obtained from different genomic data types, cancer types, and algorithms. For this, we compared the prognostic power using the concordance and prognostic index of models obtained from EXPR, MIRNA, CNA, MUT data and their integration for ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OV), multiform glioblastoma (GBM), lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), and breast cancer (BRCA) datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas repository. We used three different algorithms for prognostic model selection based on constrained particle swarm optimization (CPSO), network feature selection (NFS), and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO).
    • Reference values for amino acids and acylcarnitines in peripheral blood in Quarter horses and American Miniature horses

      Rodríguez-Sánchez, Irám P.; Treviño Alvarado, Víctor M.; del Rosario Torres-Sepúlveda, María; López Saldaña, Liliana A.; Ponce García, Gustavo; López Uriarte, Graciela A.; del Consuelo Ruiz-Herrera, María; Zamora Ávila, Diana E.; Villarreal Pérez, Jesús Z.; Dávalos Aranda, Guillermo; Martínez de Villarreal, Laura E. (Springer Open, 29/09/2015)
      Abstract Background Free amino acids and acylcarnitines circulating in the blood can be used for diagnosis for metabolic illness and imbalances. To date, the normal reference ranges of amino acids and acylcarnitines in horse peripheral blood have not been established. In this study, the concentrations of 12 amino acids and 26 acylcarnitines were determined by tandem mass spectrometry in complete blood from 100 healthy horses (50 Quarter horses (QH) [23 males and 27 females] and 50 American Miniature horses (AMH) [15 males and 35 females]) with no signs of metabolic disease. The means and standard deviations were determined and data statistically analyzed. Findings Concentrations of short, medium, and long chain acylcarnitines were significantly higher in male AMH than in male QH. The concentrations of the amino acids alanine, arginine, glycine, proline (glycogenic), and leucine (ketogenic) were higher in the QH than in the AMH. Female AMH had higher concentrations of propionylcarnitine, leucine, proline, arginine, and ornithine than female QH. Conclusions Normal reference ranges of amino acids and acylcarnitines were established for AMH and QH. Significant differences were found in concentration of these compounds between breeds and gender.
    • Protective mechanisms of medicinal plants targeting hepatic stellate cell activation and extracellular matrix deposition in liver fibrosis

      Duval, Florent; Moreno Cuevas, Jorge E.; González Garza y Barrón, María T.; Rodríguez Montalvo, Carlos; Cruz Vega, Delia E. (Springer Open, 24/12/2014)
      Abstract During chronic liver injury, hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are activated and proliferate, which causes excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, leading to scar formation and fibrosis. Medicinal plants are gaining popularity as antifibrotic agents, and are often safe, cost-effective, and versatile. This review aims to describe the protective role and mechanisms of medicinal plants in the inhibition of HSC activation and ECM deposition during the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. A systematic literature review on the anti-fibrotic mechanisms of hepatoprotective plants was performed in PubMed, which yielded articles about twelve relevant plants. Many of these plants act via disruption of the transforming growth factor beta 1 signaling pathway, possibly through reduction in oxidative stress. This reduction could explain the inhibition of HSC activation and reduction in ECM deposition. Medicinal plants could be a source of anti-liver fibrosis compounds.
    • Comparative genomics of bacterial and plant folate synthesis and salvage: predictions and validations

      de Crécy Lagard, Valérie; El Yacoubi, Basma; de la Garza, Rocío D; Noiriel, Alexandre; Hanson, Andrew D; Tecnologico de Monterrey (Open Access Publisher, 23/07/2007)
      Abstract Background Folate synthesis and salvage pathways are relatively well known from classical biochemistry and genetics but they have not been subjected to comparative genomic analysis. The availability of genome sequences from hundreds of diverse bacteria, and from Arabidopsis thaliana, enabled such an analysis using the SEED database and its tools. This study reports the results of the analysis and integrates them with new and existing experimental data. Results Based on sequence similarity and the clustering, fusion, and phylogenetic distribution of genes, several functional predictions emerged from this analysis. For bacteria, these included the existence of novel GTP cyclohydrolase I and folylpolyglutamate synthase gene families, and of a trifunctional p-aminobenzoate synthesis gene. For plants and bacteria, the predictions comprised the identities of a 'missing' folate synthesis gene (folQ) and of a folate transporter, and the absence from plants of a folate salvage enzyme. Genetic and biochemical tests bore out these predictions. Conclusion For bacteria, these results demonstrate that much can be learnt from comparative genomics, even for well-explored primary metabolic pathways. For plants, the findings particularly illustrate the potential for rapid functional assignment of unknown genes that have prokaryotic homologs, by analyzing which genes are associated with the latter. More generally, our data indicate how combined genomic analysis of both plants and prokaryotes can be more powerful than isolated examination of either group alone.
    • Metabolism of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol in a Gram-positive bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. PMA

      Arora, Pankaj K.; Sharma, Ashutosh; Mehta, Richa; Shenoy, Belle D.; Srivastava, Alok; Singh, Vijay P.; Tecnologico de Monterrey (Open Access Publisher, 21/11/2012)
      Abstract Background Chloronitrophenols (CNPs) are widely used in the synthesis of dyes, drugs and pesticides, and constitute a major group of environmental pollutants. 4-Chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP) is an isomer of CNPs that has been detected in various industrial effluents. A number of physicochemical methods have been used for treatment of wastewater containing 4C2NP. These methods are not as effective as microbial degradation, however. Results A 4C2NP-degrading bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. PMA, which uses 4C2NP as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from a chemically-contaminated site in India. Exiguobacterium sp. PMA degraded 4C2NP with the release of stoichiometeric amounts of chloride and ammonium ions. The effects of different substrate concentrations and various inoculum sizes on degradation of 4C2NP were investigated. Exiguobacterium sp. PMA degraded 4C2NP up to a concentration of 0.6 mM. High performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry identified 4-chloro-2-aminophenol (4C2AP) and 2-aminophenol (2AP) as possible metabolites of the 4C2NP degradation pathway. The crude extract of 4C2NP-induced PMA cells contained enzymatic activity for 4C2NP reductase and 4C2AP dehalogenase, suggesting the involvement of these enzymes in the degradation of 4C2NP. Microcosm studies using sterile and non-sterile soils spiked with 4C2NP were carried out to monitor the bioremediation potential of Exiguobacterium sp. PMA. The bioremediation of 4C2NP by Exiguobacterium sp. PMA was faster in non-sterilized soil than sterilized soil. Conclusions Our studies indicate that Exiguobacterium sp. PMA may be useful for the bioremediation of 4C2NP-contaminated sites. This is the first report of (i) the formation of 2AP in the 4C2NP degradation pathway by any bacterium and (iii) the bioremediation of 4C2NP by any bacterium.
    • Novel way to investigate evolution of children refractory epilepsy by complexity metrics in massive information

      Zavala Yoe, Ricardo; Ramírez Mendoza, Ricardo A.; Cordero, Luz M.; Tecnologico de Monterrey (SpringerOpen Journal, 21/08/2015)
      Abstract Epilepsy demands a major burden at global levels. Worldwide, about 1% of people suffer epilepsy and 30% of them (0.3%) are anticonvulsants resistant. Among them, some children epilepsies are peculiarly difficult to deal with as Doose syndrome (DS). Doose syndrome is a very complicated type of children cryptogenic refractory epilepsy (CCRE) which is traditionally studied by analysis of complex electrencephalograms (EEG) by neurologists. CCRE are affections which evolve in a course of many years and customarily, questions such as on which year was the kid healthiest (less seizures) and on which region of the brain (channel) the affection has been progressing more negatively are very difficult or even impossible to answer as a result of the quantity of EEG recorded through the patient’s life. These questions can now be answered by the application of entropies to massive information contained in many EEG. CCRE can not always be cured and have not been investigated from a mathematical viewpoint as far as we are concerned. In this work, a set of 80 time series (distributed equally in four yearly recorded EEG) is studied in order to support pediatrician neurologists to understand better the evolution of this syndrome in the long term. Our contribution is to support multichannel long term analysis of CCRE by observing simple entropy plots instead of studying long rolls of traditional EEG graphs. A comparative analysis among aproximate entropy, sample entropy, our versions of multiscale entropy (MSE) and composite multiscale entropy revealed that our refined MSE was the most convenient complexity measure to describe DS. Additionally, a new entropy parameter is proposed and is referred to as bivariate MSE (BMSE). Such BMSE will provide graphical information in much longer term than MSE.
    • The use of gamification as a teaching methodology in a MOOC about the strategic energy reform in México

      Mena, Juan José; Rincón Flores, Elvira G; Ramírez Ramírez, Raúl; Ramírez Montoya, María Soledad; Universidad de Salamanca (2019-08)
      The irruption of online programs in education such as MOOCs is pushing educators to promote new ways of teaching to engage students. Nonetheless, most higher education teachers are not trained in the practices of e-learning. In this paper, we study the effects of gamification to see whether it better promotes learning. Over 6,000 participants enrolled in the MOOC entitled “Conventional and green energy sources” and 1,016 eventually completed it.  Main results indicate that for all participants’ profiles (i.e., gender, age, and educational level) the completion of a gamification challenge at the end of the course favored their learning as shown in a final test scores. This lead us to think that gamification improves students’ performance in online teaching. However, there are technical limitations associated to the courses platforms that need to be solved to be able to use non-traditional learning approaches.
    • Evaluación de Percepciones Sobre la Interdisciplinariedad: Validación de Instrumento para Estudiantes de Educación Superior

      Hernandez-Armenta, Itzel; Dominguez, Angeles; Valderrama, José; Tecnologico de Monterrey (2019-06-30)
      Las problemáticas y actividades del tiempo presente demandan desarrollar habilidades de integración del conocimiento, privilegiando las perspectivas que conserven en mayor medida la naturaleza compleja de la realidad. Este estudio presenta la construcción y validación (análisis de confiabilidad y validez) de un instrumento de medición de la percepción sobre la interdisciplinariedad para estudiantes universitarios. Se contó con la participación de n=279 estudiantes de diversos programas académicos y cursando alguna materia de segundo año de educación superior. El instrumento consiste en trece reactivos evaluados en escala Likert (coeficiente de alfa de Cronbach=0.704), clasificados en tres dimensiones relativas a la percepción de competencias para la interdisciplinariedad (mostrando correlación de Pearson moderada para cada dimensión). Este trabajo aporta un test validado para medir la percepción que tienen los estudiantes de cualquier campo disciplinar sobre la integración del conocimiento en su experiencia educativa. El uso de este instrumento provee argumentos sobre la relevancia del enfoque interdisciplinario en la formación universitaria.
    • Tecnología e innovación para el desarrollo sostenible

      Zamora Salazar, César Francisco (2019-03-06)
      El M.C. José H. Ramírez deberá convencer a representantes de la iniciativa privada y del gobierno, sobre la viabilidad del proyecto multisectorial: "Alternativas de Desarrollo Social Sustentable para el manejo de la situación ambiental del sistema lagunar Bahía de Altata-Ensenada de Pabellón", el cual pudiera ser el primer paso que inicie la transición hacia un desarrollo social, económico y medioambiental verdaderamente sostenible para la región. Mejorando la calidad de vida de sus habitantes con nuevas fuentes de ingreso y garantizando el acceso a un ecosistema sano para el bienestar social y la resiliencia de sus comunidades.
    • Gamification in MOOCs: Engagement application test in energy sustainability courses

      Romero-Rodriguez, Luis M.; Ramirez-Montoya, Maria Soledad; Valenzuela González, Jaime Ricardo; Tecnologico de Monterrey (IEEE, 2019-03-05)
      Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have triggered a sudden change in the educational scene. Its characteristics of being free, heterogeneous, multi-thematic, and fostering lifelong learning have completely changed the instructional design scene, allowing these innovations and new architectures of teaching and learning to be included. However, MOOCs have been criticized by the scientific community for their high dropout rates and low overall completion rates, which has called into question their effectiveness as a pedagogical tool. This study analyzes how the application of gamification strategies in MOOCs on energy sustainability affects participants’ engagement and seeks to identify what types of interactive gamification media are more useful in generating interest and motivation in students. In order to do so, a mixed quasi-experimental method is used. A gamification board with challenges, badges, and leaderboards to a sample is used, and at the same time, this platform is analyzed using the Integrated Theoretical Gamification Model in e-Learning Environments (E-MIGA). In the MOOCs where gamification strategies were applied, a global completion rate of 14.43% was obtained, while in those without gamification, 6.162% was obtained. Likewise, the degree of student engagement with respect to the completion rate of activities was much higher in the gamified platform (28.032%) than in the traditional design (13.252%). The results show that applying gamification strategies in MOOCs achieves a higher level of engagement and student motivation.
    • Quality of peer feedback in relation to instructional design: A comparative study in energy and sustainability MOOCs

      Elizondo-Garcia, Josemaria; Schunn, Christian; Gallardo Córdova, Katherina Edith; Tecnologico de Monterrey (2019-01-01)
      Peer feedback has become a common practice in MOOCs for its capacity to scale formative assessment and feedback on higher-order abilities. Though many practices for improving peer assessment have been examined, there is a lack of knowledge of how instructional design and platform features affect the quality of peer assessment and the relative frequency of different types of peer feedback comments. This study aimed to improve understanding of the relationship between quality of feedback and peer-feedback’ pedagogical design. Peer feedback instructional design and peer feedback comment data were examined from two MOOCS in a similar domain of personal relevance but with substantially different designs. Country of origin of the feedback provider was also examined to control for cultural/linguistic effects. Differences between the two courses were observed in both the pedagogical designs and in the focus of peer comments, suggesting that peer feedback design is an important guide for the focus of peer feedback comments. Furthermore, the results support the idea that instructional design features, mainly the guide’ structure and focus, determine the type of comments that participants will produce and hence receive.
    • Avance de tesis. Evaluación formativa en cursos en línea masivos y abiertos: Estudio sobre retroalimentación entre pares en cursos de sustentabilidad y ahorro energético

      Elizondo-Garcia, Josemaria (2019-01)
      Se ha evaluado el valor pedagógico de los curso en línea masivos y abiertos y el avance que ofrecen en la educación a distancia. Pues a pesar de que estos cursos se han mostrado como una innovación disruptiva en la educación en línea, algunos autores señalan que no se ha demostrado que tengan un sustento pedagógico que garanticen un salto de calidad pedagógica respecto a la generación de aprendizaje, en relación a los demás modelos formativos en línea (Martín, González y García, 2013; Ramírez-Fernández, 2015; Sánchez, 2016; Aguaded y Medina-Salguero, 2015). Por ello, resulta necesario conocer las deficiencias en los mismos de tal forma que se puedan orientar los esfuerzos a la mejora de sus dimensiones que más lo demandan. Una de estas dimensiones en la evaluación del aprendizaje.
    • Student engagement as predictor of xMOOC completion: An analysis from five courses on energy sustainability

      Guajardo-Leal, Brenda E.; Valenzuela González, Jaime Ricardo; Scott, John (2019)
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    • Systematic Mapping Study of Academic Engagement in MOOC

      Guajardo-Leal, Brenda Edith; Navarro-Corona, Claudia; Valenzuela González, Jaime Ricardo (2019)
      error, no deja copiar y pegar
    • MOOC Lab, a Massive Online Laboratory with Real Time access

      Macías García, Manuel Eduardo; Rincón Flores, Elvira G.; Tecnológico de Monterrey (IEEE Advancing technology for humanity, 2019)
      This study focuses on the usability of a remote laboratory as part of a massive, open and online course, better known as MOOC. The MOOC course for basic principles of Electric Energy is part of a Binational Laboratory project for the Intelligent Management of the Energy Sustainability and the Technological Formation, which has as one of its main objectives to train Spanish-speaking people, particularly from Mexico and Latin America, over topics of energy sustainability through MOOCs. Furthermore, the objective of this research work is to analyze the geographic scope of this massive remote laboratory, as well as the way the users work remotely on the platform. At present, by 2 times offered, the course enrolled 11087 participants and the MOOC Lab registered 3731 users that carry out 1705 lab sessions.
    • En búsqueda del entendimiento en una torre de Babel: propuesta de un modelo para la innovación educativa en redes de colaboración

      García Vázquez, Nancy Janett; Guajardo-Leal, Brenda Edith; Valenzuela González, Jaime Ricardo (Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, 2018-12-31)
      Las redes de colaboración potencialmente permiten el desarrollo de innovaciones que generan cambios de alto impacto. Los miembros de una red de esta índole tienen siempre objetivos en común, pero también se caracterizan por tener una amplia diversidad de perfiles: distintos idiomas, disciplinas, experiencias profesionales y niveles educativos, entre otras cualidades. Esto puede, en ocasiones, dificultar el entendimiento entre ellos cuando se ha de trabajar colaborativamente. Este artículo presenta el caso de estudio de una red de innovación educativa; se describe su propósito, su dinámica de trabajo y una serie de tensiones experimentadas en procesos de colaboración. Las tensiones son retos a superar derivados de un trabajo entre personas con características múltiples; y representan conexiones entre los nodos de una red que deben ser atendidas para evitar posibles rupturas. Las tensiones detectadas se tomaron como oportunidades para crear una propuesta de modelo para la colaboración. Dicho modelo tiene como objetivo facilitar los procesos de comunicación y trabajo entre los integrantes de un grupo, promoviendo una colaboración más eficiente.
    • La calidad de la retroalimentación entre pares en relación con el diseño instruccional: Un estudio comparativo en CEMA de energía y sustentabilidad

      Elizondo-Garcia, Josemaria; Schunn, Christian; Gallardo Córdova, Katherina Edith; Tecnologico de Monterrey (2018-12-11)
      La retroalimentación entre pares se ha convertido una práctica común en los cursos en línea masivos y abiertos (CEMA o MOOC por su sigla en inglés, massive open online course) debido a su capacidad para escalar la evaluación y la retroalimentación de habilidades de alto orden. Aunque muchas prácticas para mejorar la evaluación han sido investigadas, existe una falta de entendimiento sobre cómo el diseño instruccional y las características de la plataforma MOOC afectan la calidad de la evaluación y las características de los comentarios de retroalimentación. El presente estudio tuvo el propósito de lograr un mayor conocimiento sobre la relación entre el diseño pedagógico de las actividades de retroalimentación entre pares y la calidad de los comentarios de retroalimentación. Colectamos y comparamos información sobre el diseño instruccional y los comentarios de retroalimentación de dos MOOC: Ahorro de energía en MéxicoX y Preparación para desastres en Coursera. Los resultados evidencian que la mayoría de las diferencias se muestran al comparar el enfoque de los comentarios. Esto apoya la idea de que el diseño del diseño instruccional guía el enfoque de los comentarios, y que las características del diseño instruccional, principalmente la estructura y el enfoque de las rúbricas, determinan el tipo de comentarios que los participantes brindan.